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Lecture 16

Psychology 46-322 Lecture 16: Notes on Sleep and Elimination Disorders

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Lecture 16 on Sleep and Elimination Disorders  Many have symptom issues that increase risk for psychopathology in some way (outcomes, treatment, etc.) Normal Sleep  New borns sleep 16-20 hours per day on average (wake up 1.5-4 hours  food)  Magic number to sleep through the night  12 lbs (most will sleep through the night since stomach large enough to hold enough nutrition)  1 year olds  at least 12 hours of sleep in every 24 hour period  6-12 year olds  10-11 hours  Adolescence  8-10 hours of sleep  Purpose for sleep o Our bodies grow during sleep (while awake, using calories for other things, not to grow); kids who are sleep deprived aren't as tall and the brain will not be as developed o Healing  to get rid of the viral illness; system repair work during your sleep (immune system, tissue repair and regeneration) o Memory consolidation  we consolidate learning, making long-term memory longer; we process what happened and turn it into things of our past; brain puts memories from short term to long term memory, and may resolve psychological conflicts during this time  2 phases/stages of sleep: o REM sleep  Babies have vast REM sleep; the older you get  You have less and less REM sleep over time (Elderly almost have no REM sleep) o Non-REM sleep (has multiple stages; not so important for child psychopathology)  Are common sleep problems (Not a disorder) o In babies that don’t sleep well, part of the reason because they don’t know how to self-soothe  Sleep cycles last 25-60 minutes  At the end of sleep cycle, are close to consciousness at the end of the cycle (any noise during that period can wake up that individual)  Babies that are self-soothed know what to do to put themselves back to sleep (parents can teach babies how to self-soothe by placing them in the crib while they're awake, that waking up in crib is not a problem) o Pre-schooler  refused to go to bed that they might miss something  Parents need to understand that they're tired  Pre-schoolers also start having nightmares, fear of things (ex. dark), continue to early school age period o School-age: Hard time falling asleep  Teach the child to self-sooth what to do when they can't fall asleep  Strategies change as age changes  Alphabet and counting for little kids  Or count backwards when the child is older o Insufficient sleep (in adolescence) Dyssomnias  Difficulty sleeping on a regular basis May associate with anxiety or high levels of stress (because anxiety jumps at the point  where person is awake enough and keeps person awake)  Rare in pre-school/school age and unheard of in infants; become more common in adolescence, very common in early adulthood Parasomnias (more common in children)  Sleepwalking  people's eyes are typically open but they are not conscious o Episodes may last a few seconds (ex. sitting up in bed) to long periods of time o Possibility of physical injuries is high since person is not conscious so do not appreciate risks (ex. falling down the stairs) o Sleep walking usually happens in the first third of the night when REM sleep is less likely to occur o Sleeping walking does not occur during REM o 15% of pop has one episode of sleep walking (typically in childhood) o 1-6% have chronic sleepwalking o Usually disappears in adolescence for unknown reasons o Activities during sleep walking does not have any cognitive activity associated with it (dreaming or visual imagery) o Sleepwalking is heritable  Sleep terrors o No planning  terrified/fright reactions during non-REM sleep (occur in about 3% of young children) o Usually start in preschool period, gone by adolescence (most common in 3-5 year olds) o Child is not awake, difficult to wake up o Occurs in the first third of the night, occur in first third of the night and only during non-REM sleep o Overwhelming physiological measurements  dilated pupils, increased heart rate, sweating, high levels cortisol and norepinephrine (adrenaline) o The child has no recollection of it afterwards (no lasting memory of the event)  Nightmare o Fright reaction as well but occur during REM sleep (occurs middle of the night onward) o The child is usually quiet when it occurs, physiological arousal is a little higher but not as high as sleep terrors (moderate) o Physical movement is very limited because during REM sleep, most people are incapable of movement o Thus, children having nightmares until they wake up are fairly still and quiet o But they wake up, and easily connect to the environment after they wake up o Have intact memory (they can tell you what happened) o Kids are more likely to have nightmares when stressed o More than 60% have very severe nightmares on a regular basis because of stressful events (ex. divorce, first day of school etc.) Treating Sleep Problems  Is there a need to treat the sleep problem?  But treatment doesn’t teach the sleep behaviour (meds usually not advised since does not teach sleeping behaviour)  Rebound feature for meds  after taking meds, they go back to their symptoms  Significant side effects  grumpiness, daytime sleep, memory problems  Sleep parasonmias  usually will resolve on its own w
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