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Lecture 15

Psychology 46-330 Lecture 15: Notes on Behaviourism and Bandura

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Ken Cramer

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Lecture 15 on Behaviourism and Bandura Personality in 1900s  New orientation in personality research  behaviourism o Looking at behaviours on the surface of the person (what we can actually see on the outside) o What we can see is what you put on your face; we can change what we can see  Ivan Pavlor  S/S learning  Watson  Stimulus/response learning Radical Behaviourism  It has to be rewarding, or else it wouldn't be there  Behaviours require consequences  darwinism  Behaviours become tools  using the toolbox of behaviours, find the right behaviour we think it fits, apply it to the problems we face, to get the right consequences  We put a label to a list of behaviours: the behaviours exist, the label doesn’t  Tolman's Latent Learning  Without reward, learning was taken place Albert Bandura  Bandura disagrees with Watson that personality has no psyche, no soul  Bandura thinks we have a SOR bond in learning  He looks at internal events (ex. thoughts, expectations) which can be conditioned Reciprocal determinism  Personal/Cognitive factors (P/C), behaviours (B), environmental factors (E) affect each other o P/C factors - Behaviour  Cognitions and environmental events affect each other o P/C Factors - Environment  people actively create their own environments and act to change them (we seek out environments that suit us; we also change the environment)  Ex. What show do TV execs choose to air on TV (E)  The show you watch shape your preferences (B)  what TV shows do you prefer? (P/C)  You don't have to receive rewards, you can think about it (the anticipation of reward that holds you)  Behaviour does not require external reinforcement  Social learning  we haven't engage in the behaviour but we do what we do anyway because we want to avoid bad consequences Modeling Theory  It's up to us to find the effective model that suits us, so we follow successful role models  We do not have to engage in the behaviour to learn the behaviour  Bandura had adults in three groups to beat up a bobo doll and gave them each group 1 consequence in front of children, then left each child in the room with the bobo ball o Role model was rewarded (highest level of aggression) o Model was punished (lowest) o No consequence (moderate) Longitudinal research  It is neat that it predicts the future; it doesn’t just measure one point of time but different times in life, but remember that they are just correlations Experimental Research (Liebert & Baron)  Children were measured their aggression levels after viewing violent or nonviolent shows (assuming they were equal before viewing)  The results were augmented for boys Josephson (1987)  Boys only were shown violent or nonviolent shows (independent variable)  By random assignment, it is assumed that everyone is equal (equal aggression level) but she measured their aggression level before viewing (covariate  it clears out the assumption) What about adults?  Children are viewed as easier influenced; what about adults?  Strong relationship betw
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