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46-330 (46)
Ken Cramer (46)
Lecture 18

Psychology 46-330 Lecture 18: Notes on Control and Choice

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Ken Cramer

Lecture 18 on Control and Choice  You change your theory to predict and control events  Expectation is nothing more than hypotheses Seligman  Describes control as the likelihood of success  can you change it  Behaviours that influence the event; Having some control over the event  Having no control over the event is when the chances are equal across all actions  Illusory control  falsely believe that the behaviour have control over the event; overestimate the likelihood of success (ex. blow on the dice) Langer  Participants bought a $2 lottery ticket o Random number generator o Participants picked numbers  Reselling ticket, how much is the ticket worth? o Random tickets were worth less, personal tickets worth more o "my ticket have a greater chance to win because I picked the numbers"  Illusory control  The act of choice  Control rat  spinning the wheel will shut off the shocks; that rat has control to overcome stress  "subordinate" rat  spinning the wheel doesn’t do anything, the shocks will only stop when "executive" rat spins the wheel **You need predictability to control something   You cannot test the cell with no control and no prediction  You cannot predict something that has no anticipation; no prediction with no outcome  This does not have to be about rats, why not apply it to humans?  According to the tradition model, there is no control if there is no outcome  Success is a prediction Reconceptualized model  Nickels describes control as "influence over outcomes"  Predictionless outcome does exist o Ex. giving you a menu in a language you didn’t know,whether or not you liked the meal or not, you had control o Example of predictionless control  No actual control vs. actual control  Short or long unpleasant noises  Participants get to choose two plugs: picking a short timer or a long timer  But the plugs look identical, you can't tell the outcome based on the plug  They blindly picked a plug  Or experimenter coin flip selects plug (no control)  Those with controllers felt more influence over noise; without predictions they still felt control  Long and short time of listening to noise with timing device  Picked cards with black and white backgrounds (ideally you want white background because
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