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Psychology 46-333 perception notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
46-333
Professor
Brown
Semester
Summer

Description
Perception
 
 Thresholds
 • threshold
(or
limen)‐‐the
point
when
a
psychological
and/or
physiological
effect
is
produced
 • absolute
threshold‐‐the
least
amount
of
a
stimulus
needed
to
trigger
a
sensory
perception
(e.g.
 a
candle
at
one
mile
away)
 • difference
threshold
(or
just
noticeable
difference)‐‐the
least
amount
of
difference
between
two
 stimuli
for
perception
to
occur
 
 • Gustav
Fechner
elaborated
on
Ernst
Weber’s
work
to
create
Weber’s
Law
 –
 Weber’s
Law
states,
to
be
perceptibly
different,
two
stimuli
must
differ
by
a
constant
 proportion,
not
a
constant
amount
of
the
original
stimulus
 – this
is
related
to
difference
thresholds
 
 • David
Hubel
and
Torsten
Wiesel
are
best
known
for
feature
detection
theory
 – the
visual
cortex
has
feature
detector
neurons
that
receive
information
from
individual
 ganglion
cells
in
the
visual
field
and
respond
to
a
scene’s
specific
features
 – feature
detection
cells
in
the
visual
cortex
pass
on
information
to
other
cortical
cells
that
 respond
only
to
more
complex
patterns
 – the
visual
cortex
has
feature
detectors
for
a
variety
of
images;
what
we
perceive
is
a
 combination
of
these
features
 
 •

 our
brain
naturally
engage
in
parallel
processing—processing
many
things
at
once
 •

 the
visual
scene
is
divided
by
the
brain
into
sub‐dimensions—movement,
color,
depth,
form
 •

 visual
perception
requires
integrating
these
separate
pieces
 –
 the
process
of
facial
recognition
requires
the
combined
efforts
of
about
30%
of
the
cortex
 –
 interrupting
facial
recognition
with
magnetic
pulses
will
disrupt
this
process
and
people
are
 unable
to
recognize
the
face
 –
 magnetic
pulses
do
not
work
with
object
recognition,
however
 
 The
Eye
Diagram
p.
205
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 The
Eye
 • the
structures
of
the
eye
from
the
diagram
are
as
follows:
 – lens:
focuses
the
image
onto
the
retina;
the
image
is
focused
upside‐down
on
the
retina
 – pupil:
regulates
the
amount
of
light
entering
the
eye;
full
dark
adaptation
takes
about
30
 minutes
and
light
adaptation
about
1
minute
 – iris:
the
colored
part
of
the
eye
 – cornea:
the
soft,
outer,
protective
covering
of
the
eye
 – retina:
contains
photoreceptor
cells,
rods
(which
detect
brightness
contrasts)
and
cones
 (which
detect
color)
 – fovea:
an
area
of
the
retina
that
contains
all
cones
and
no
rods
 – optic
nerve:
relays
visual
information
to
the
brain
 – blind
spot:
where
the
optic
nerve
connects
to
the
back
of
the
eye
 
 How
We
See
 • gathering
light
 • light
reflected
off
objects
 • color
is
collected
through
both
light
intensity
(brightness)
and
light
wavelength
(color)
 • within
the
eye
 • reflected
light
enters
the
eye
through
the
cornea
and
pupil
 • the
iris
muscles
regulate
the
pupil
to
open
or
close
 • the
light
is
focused
by
the
lens
onto
the
retina
 
 • transduction
 • transduction‐‐translating
incoming
stimuli
into
neural
signals
 • rods
and
cones
fire
in
an
area
of
the
retina
 • these
photoreceptor
cells
activate
the
next
layer
of
bipolar
cells
 • these
bipolar
cells
activate
ganglion
cells
 • axons
of
these
ganglion
cells
make
up
the
optic
nerve
 • the
optic
nerve
sends
these
impulses
to
the
lateral
geniculate
nucleus
of
the
thalamus
 • these
impulses
are
sent
to
the
visual
cortex
in
the
occipital
lobe
 • feature
detectors
are
activated
to
determine
lines,
curves,
motion
and
other
features
of
the
 object
 
 Transduction
Diagram
p.
207
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 The
Visual
Cortex
 • information
travels
from
the
eyes
to
various
parts
of
the
brain:
 – the
thalamus
 – the
visual
cortex
of
the
occipital
lobe
 
 • Hubel
and
Wiesel
have
developed
the
feature
detection
theory‐‐there
are
certain
cells
in
the
visual
 cortex
that
are
sensitive
to
certain
features
of
a
stimulus
 • they
determined
there
were
three
types
cells
in
the
visual
cortex:
 – simple‐‐provide
information
about
the
position
and
boundaries
of
a
stimuli
 – complex‐‐provide
advanced
information
about
position
such
as
movement
 – hypercomplex‐‐provide
abstract
information
such
as
shape
or
size
 
 Color
Perception
 • subtractive
color
mixtures
deal
primarily
with
mixing
pigments
(e.g.
blue
and
yellow
mixed
 together
make
green)
 • additive
color
mixtures
deal
primarily
with
mixing
lights
(e.g.
combining
a
green
and
red
light
will
 give
you
yellow)
 
 • there
are
two
main
theories
of
color
perception:
 – trichromatic
(or
Young‐Helmholtz)
theory:
all
color
perception
derives
from
three
different
 color
receptors
in
the
retina
(usually
red,
blue
and
green);
while
this
theory
can
physically
 recreate
the
spectrum
of
colors,
much
like
your
TV
set
does,
it
cannot
explain
color
blindness
 or
negative
afterimages
 – opponent
process
theory:
three
sets
of
color
receptors
(blue‐yellow,
red‐green,
black‐white
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