Class Notes (838,534)
Canada (510,933)
Psychology (550)
46-333 (41)
Brown (3)
Lecture

Psychology 46-333 - notes on therapies

6 Pages
112 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
46-333
Professor
Brown
Semester
Summer

Description
Therapies
 
 Terms
 • symptoms:
behavioral
signs
indicating
a
disorder
is
present

 • diagnosis:
a
classification
of
a
disorder;
typically
the
DSM‐IV
is
used
to
determine
the
diagnosis

 • etiology:
suggestion
of
a
cause
of
a
disorder

 • prognosis:
an
estimate
as
to
the
length
of
time
or
degree
of
effectiveness
in
treating
a
disorder

 • treatment:
a
course
of
action
aimed
at
reducing,
controlling
or
eliminating
the
symptoms
of
a
 disorder

 
 History
 • Trephining‐‐discovered
by
archeologists,
early
process
in
which
holes
were
drilled
into
skulls
to
 let
harmful
human
spirits
leave
 • Hippocrates
believed
the
psychological
disorders
were
a
result
of
biological
factors
and
could
be
 treated.
 • During
the
Middle
Ages,
disorders
were
the
result
of
evil
sprits
and
the
victims
were
persecuted
 • During
the
Enlightenment,
patients
with
psychological
disorders
were
treated
more
humanely
 – Philippe
Pinel
(France)
and
Dorothea
Dix
(US)
helped
to
develop
institutionalization
to
care
 for
and
help
their
patients
 • Treatment
in
the
United
States:
 – 1950s‐‐psychotropic
drugs
facilitated
the
release
of
patients
from
institutions
 – 1960s‐‐in
response
to
released
patients’
inability
to
care
for
themselves,
community‐based
 mental
health
centers
were
set
up
 – recent
trends
are
aimed
at
prevention:
 • primary
prevention­­reduce
the
occurrence
of
societal
problems
that
can
cause
mental
 illness
 • secondary
prevention­­dealing
with
people
who
are
undergoing
psychological
difficulties
 • tertiary
prevention‐‐working
to
make
sure
mental
health
issues
don’t
get
worse
 
 Models
of
Treatment
 • There
are
six
recognized
models
of
treatment:
 – psychodynamic:
believes
the
key
to
successful
treatment
involves
having
the
patient
gain
 insight
into
their
unconscious
motives,
emotions
or
conflicts

 – behavioral:
advocates
relearning
as
the
preferred
method
of
correcting
past
maladaptive
 behaviors

 – humanistic:
believes
in
the
inherent
goodness
of
people
and
strives
to
make
them
more
fully‐ functioning

 – cognitive:
attempts
to
restructure
the
patient's
incorrect
thought
processes
and
unrealistic
 expectations
into
more
realistic
thoughts

 – biomedical:
advocates
the
treatment
of
psychological
disorders
through
chemical
or
surgical
 processes

 – group
therapy:
allows
other
afflicted
with
similar
disorders
to
share
real‐world
solutions
and
 coping
mechanisms
 
 Albert
Ellis
 • Ellis
assumes
that:
 – “no
one
and
nothing
is
supreme”
 – “self‐gratification”
should
be
encouraged
 – “unequivocal
love,
commitment,
service,
and…fidelity
to
any
interpersonal
commitment,
 especially
marriage,
leads
to
harmful
consequences.”
 • This
perspective
illustrates
how
a
psychotherapist’s
personal
beliefs
and
values
influence
their
 practice
 – therapists
should
divulge
their
values
more
openly
 
 
 Psychodynamic
Therapy
 • Sigmund
Freud
pioneered
this
form
of
treatment
with
his
"talking
cure,"
a
derivative
of
Joseph
 Breuer's
"chimney
sweeping"

 • Both
of
these
involve
the
cathartic
method,
or
a
treatment
that
results
in
a
cleansing
or
purging
of
 emotions
 • The
ultimate
goal
is
to
provide
the
patient
insight
into
past,
unresolved
conflicts
from
emotionally
 abrasive
experiences
during
childhood
 • The
patients
may
exhibit
resistance,
or
an
unwillingness
to
discuss
their
thoughts
and
behaviors
 freely
 
 • Freud's
psychoanalysis
involves
three
parts:
 – free
association:
allowing
the
patient
to
say
whatever
is
important
to
them
at
the
time
with
 minimal
prompting
from
the
therapist

 – hypnosis:
a
mild
state
of
relaxation
and
increased
suggestibility
that
Freud
perfected
through
 his
studies
with
Jean
Martin
Charcot
in
Paris

 – dream
analysis:
an
investigation
into
the
dream
work,
the
process
involved
in
changing
the
 latent
content
of
a
dream
produced
by
the
id
into
the
manifest
content
designed
to
preserve
 ego
integrity

 
 • While
undergoing
therapy,
the
patient
can
experience
both
positive
and
negative
transference
 – positive
transference
involves
projecting
the
patient's
warm
feelings
for
their
parents
onto
the
 therapist
 – negative
transference
involves
projecting
hostile
feelings
towards
authority
figures
onto
the
 therapist
 • The
therapist
can
also
suffer
from
countertransference
where
they
project
feelings
of
affection
or
 hostility
toward
significant
people
in
their
lives
onto
the
patient.
 
 • NeoFreudians
or
post‐Freudians
have
emphasized
different
aspects
of
Freud's
theories
 • They
don't
believe
the
libido
is
the
primary
motive
in
our
unconscious
actions
 • They
believe
that
current
issues
the
individual
is
dealing
with
are
sometimes
more
significant
 than
experiences
in
childhood
 • They
include
the
influence
of
social
and
interpersonal
relationships
in
the
patient's
overall
mental
 health
 • They
also
believe
that
the
patient's
self‐concept
plays
a
significant
role
in
their
emotional
well‐ being
 
 Behavioral
Therapy
 • There
are
a
variety
of
behavioral
techniques
employed
to
correct
maladaptive
learning:
 – behavioral
contracting:

 • also
called
behavior
modification
or
contingency
management
 • involves
the
use
of
operant
conditioning
in
providing
rewards
for
positive
behaviors
and
 punishment
for
negative
behaviors
 • behavioral
contracting
actually
spells
out
the
criteria
for
receiving
rewards
and
 punishment

 – avoidance
conditioning:

 • also
called
aversive
conditioning
 • this
technique
teaches
the
patient
to
avoid
negative
behaviors
because
they
will
result
in
 punishment
 • patients
may
take
medication
to
make
them
throw
up
if
they
drink
any
alcohol
 – systematic
desensitization:

 • a
step‐by‐step
process
in
which
patients
move
closer
to
the
objects
or
situations
they
fear,
 progressing
each
step
only
when
they
feel
comfortable
enough
to
proceed
 • a
person
who
is
afraid
of
heights
will
gradually
progress
from
the
bottom
to
the
top
of
a
 tall
building
to
combat
their
acrophobia

 
 – implosion
or
flooding:

 • the
patient
is
exposed
to
the
object
or
situation
they
most
fear
or
provokes
the
greatest
 emotional
reaction
in
order
to
extinguish
the
anxiety
associated
with
the
entire
class
of
 stimuli
 • a
person
who
is
afraid
of
dogs
will
encounter
a
large
dog
to
extinguish
their
fear
of
all
sizes
 of
dog
 • the
advantages
of
implosion
and
flooding
are
that
the
therapist
can
get
an
accurate
 observation
of
the
patient's
behaviors
and
is
there
to
guide
the
patient
through
their
 anxiety
 – modeling:

 • part
of
social
learning
therapy
 • patients
observe
appropriate
behaviors
in
others
and
then
model
those
behaviors
 
 Cognitive
Therapy
 • Cognitive
therapies
involve
getting
the
patient
to
think
in
more
rational
or
realistic
terms
 • There
are
several
cognitive
therapies:
 – cognitive
behavior
therapy:

 • focuses
on
changing
incorrect
or
unrealistic
attitudes
and
expectations
through
 reinforcement
contingencies
(rewards
and
punishments)
 – Aaron
Beck's
cognitive
therapy:

 • focuses
on
patients
suffering
from
depression
 • false
assumptions
and
incorrect
thinking
are
changed
into
more
realistic
and
productive
 thinking
by
evaluating
evidence,
situational
factors
and
other
possible
solutions
 – rational­emotion
therapy
(RET):

 • irrational
beliefs
that
provoke
inappropriate
emotional
responses
are
changed
into
more
 productive
thinking
and
behaviors
 – stress
inoculation
therapy:

 • patients
are
taught
to
cope
with
situations
that
produce
an
unreasonable
amount
of
 anxiety
reaction
through
more
reasonable
thinking,
predicting
upcoming
stress
and
 techniques
to
control
or
reduce
the
anxiety
 
 Humanistic
Therapy
 • Humanistic
therapy
focuses
on
our
biological
actualizing
tendency
to
make
ourselves
better
and
 integrate
our
personality
into
a
more
fully
functioning
person
 • There
are
two
humanistic
therapies:
 – client­centered
therapy:

 • devised
by
Carl
Rogers,
this
therapy
provides
unconditional
positive
regard
or
total
 positive
support,
to
the
individual

 – Gestalt
therapy:

 • focuses
on
the
whole
person
(the
whole
is
greater
than
the
sum
of
its
parts)
in
integrating
 the
mind
and
body
 • emphasizes
dealing
with
unresolved
issues,
expressing
repressed
feelings
and
resolving
 life
tasks

More Less

Related notes for 46-333

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit