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Lecture 1

Psychology 46-422 Lecture 1: All Lecture Notes for 46-422

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University of Windsor
J.Hakim- Larson

All Lecture Notes  Dualism  opposites or two extremes on opposite end of a spectrum  One of the big debates in dualism in history  mind and body  William G Perry  started studying intellectual and ethical development at students' first year of university (all male university) o He asked the students how they felt as freshmen  They tend to take a dualistic absolutism approach (tend to think black and white, and take the main stream) o They have a central point of view and are not open to other ideas  After having a dualistic approach, they realize they need to have a committed core perspective because they then understand they didn’t have a clear sense of what they actually like  Commitment within relativism is what you see in mature adults Life-Span Development  Orthogenetic Principle o Development involves growth over time (Growth in number of strategies in emotions) o More differentiated over time as in emotions and words are more clearly defined  Person's birth cohort is when a person was born around the time you were born in history (or around the same generation) Philosophy and Emotions  Robert Solomon  Socrates (student of Plato)  Plato (interested in the quest of truth through the laws of reasoning and thinking)  Aristotle (student of Plato; the if-then reasoning; big impact on western thinking) o He believed that emotions need to be kept under control through reason o Some people are more logical than others (ex. males than females; and ethnic groups than other groups)  reason for slaves Historical Views of Emotion  Solomon (current based philosopher) o Some emotions are more important at a particular point of time than others (ex. make love not war in the WW2 period; and anger management in 1990s)  Plato connected emotions to a person's reason and spirits (and a person's desire/appetite)  Aristotle  talked about anger, pride; had to do with the concept of ethics (ethics are how do you live a good life?) o Ex. is there a right time to be angry? Do too much pride or too much anger exist? o According to Aristotle, answer is moderations in all things o Having the right emotion at the right time and at the right amount  The view of the Stoics o They are a group of people that emotions are bad o That emotions should kept hidden, and are not o Psychic apathy  If you don’t care, you're gonna have a good life Western Philosophers  Descartes (17th centuries)  Everyone has passion and emotions, self-observation is important  David Hume (18th centuries)  reason was the slave of passion; emotion was always involved  Hegel (German lived 19th centuries)  believed that philosophers cannot ignore emotions More View on Emotion  Middle ages  all fluids in your body are involved in emotion o Interested in the 7 deadly sins (envy, wrath, lust, pride/hubris, greed, sloth, gluttony) o Also interested in the virtues (justice, temperance, charity, patience, courage, diligence, and also popular in the middle ages are faith, love, hope)  Descartes  the father of modern western philosophy; thought that the mind and the body were separate (Pineal gland was the place in the body that connects the mind and the body) o Emotion can influence a person's reasoning; good emotions are encouraged (ex. joy) where bad are avoided (ex. hatred)  Spinoza  believed that emotions could lead to disruption in your life; certain thinking can differ life style and emotions o Unlike Descartes, thought that mind and body are just two aspects of one whole being  Hume  lived in the enlightenment, there was a goal to increase human knowledge to reason; attacked on anything that was thought to be irrational o Philosophers of that time went for science and reason o Felt that your ideas are the cause of emotional impressions, emotions form a part of your self, your evaluation of what's good and bad o Emotions and passion are just as important as reason  Kant  considered as a skeptic of science in the enlightenment, disagreed with Hume o Also felt emotions were important  Nietzche  was considered a romantic o They celebrated the less rational side of humanity and dark side of nature that involves deep emotion and desires 20th Century Views  North America and Britain  logical positivism (Wittgenstein) o They believed that emotions weren't important o You can understand everything (even emotions) through logics and science o Logical positivism  group of philosophers that believed that you can find a mathematical and logical system to explain emotions  Later shown it was impossible  Europe  attempt to link ethics and emotion, actions and intentions (Brentano, Husserl, Freud, Heidegger, Sartre) o Brentano  Freud and Husserl were his students; talked about intentions o Husserl  talked about existentialism Early Psychology  William James (1942-1910)  connections of old-times science and early psychology o One of the firsts to have a psychological view of emotions o He was an American philosopher who tried to define emotion o Was emotion something observable or inside a person?  What is an emotion? o Cognitive awareness  Do you have to be cognitively aware to experience the emotion? Ex. infants still have emotions although they are not aware of it o Formal object  there's usually an object that associated with the emotion  Problem: you can be anxious of something not physically o Beliefs, judgments, evaluations, values Causes and Reasons  What causes an emotion? o Sometimes emotions are involved in our needs, values, our beliefs, and the object that is associated with it o But sometimes it’s the physiological state that causes you emotions, not an object  Are emotions rational or irrational? o Aristotle believed that this was the wrong question to ask  How are ethics related to emotions? o Emotions are appropriate or inappropriate according on the culture and context Silvan Tomkins  Emotions as a primary motivators to do anything in life  Emotions act as amplifier  emphasizes whatever it's trying to do more  Biological drives are just signals, emotions are the motivators (that lead you to act)  He cited information from WW2: pilots who refused to wear oxygen masks o They didn’t feel emotions and died peacefully Emotional Expressions  Cross-cultural o Most emotions seem to be universal (ex. happiness expressed in smiling) o Anger might be expressed as a fake smile because of cultural restrictions  Silvan Tomkins o Charles Darwin, one of the first to study emotion expressions on animals, influenced Tomkins o Facial feedback theory  Tomkins believed that if you show an emotion on your face, you feel that way inside  Feedback from your skin, heat from your face, goose bumps from being afraid or excited o Influenced Ekman and Izard  Paul Ekman o Done research on adult facial expressions o Talked about cultural display rules  rules in your culture about who can express certain emotions, when they can express them, and how they are expressed (the who, when and how)  Ex. gender difference in the ruling about who can express anger  Ex. children cannot express their ideas o Also talked about display rules in your family  particular rules on expressing emotions o Personal display rules  personal belief in what emotions to express o Also interested in deception and lying o Darwin, Tomkins, and Ekman are evolutionary psychologists (ex. you show your teeth when you're angry to display a threat) o Human beings out of all animal species have the most differentiated muscles in the face  Carroll Izard o Done research on infant/child facial expressions Emotional Development  Social or affective referencing  when we don’t know what to feel, we look around to see how others are feeling (infants do this most of the time)  Children o Feeling rules  when you're not supposed to feel the emotions o Internalize rules  to internalize the feeling rule and the display rule Adolescents  Feeling of competence  that you can succeed in the areas you do; feeds into self-esteem  Self-worth has nothing to do with self-competence  that you're worthy of being loved Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Competence within Families The Emotional Revolution  Historical shift from emphasis on thought and logic to emotions  Rosenthal talked about this as the emotional revolution  Parents who want their children to be smart back in the days refers to obtaining a high score in IQ tests  Interpersonal  how you relate to other people  Intrapersonal  intelligence within yourself Emotional Intelligence (Salovey Mayer)  Emotional intelligence  the subset of the general feel of social intelligence, involves monitoring your own feelings and emotions and others'  Then you have to differentiate emotions and use that information to guide your thoughts and actions Limitations of the MSCEIT  One can be emotional intelligent yet is a immoral character (someone who is not honest, charming, possibly a psychopath) Emotional Competence  Person's moral sense/character  what the person does that he/she thinks it's fair, self- control 8 Skills  1) aware of one's own emotions  2) ability to discern and understand others' emotions  3) ability to use the vocabulary of emotion and expression  4) Empathic involvement means you are open to what others are feeling  5) you understand the difference between internal emotions and external emotions  6) the capacity for adaptive coping with aversive emotions and distressing situations  7) aware of emotional communication within relationships  8) do you feel good about yourself in managing your emotions? Does it fit in your morals? Socialization of Emotional Competence  Emotional expressiveness  involves letting other people how you feel (the frequency, duration, and intensity of the emotion that you show to other people)  Emotion understanding and decoding  being able to decode an emotion in yourself and other people  Emotion regulation  having good judgement and self-control to when, where, and how to let your emotions out Individual Differences in Emotional Competence (Intrapersonal)  When people have a good memory  they relate to similar situations in the past to the present one  Flexible thinking  they are easier to figure out how someone might feel in a situation  Temperament  people with bad temperament are particularly vulnerable to stressful situations because they started with a negative state Individual Differences in Emotional Competence (Interpersonal)  Can be indirect socialization  Affect reciprocity (the reacting emotion) can be negative (one person displays negative affect and the other person responds with negative affect) or positive (the person displays negative affect but the other person responds with positive affect) o Ex. parent-child relationship  Emotion coaching parents directly teach their children emotions and help them to regulate their feelings  Unfortunately, some parents will disapprove their children of having the emotion, ignoring it, punishing their children for having emotions  children then learn emotions should be avoided, or not worth it to show it to others  Emotional validation  learning from experience and behave differently when feel the same emotion again The Socialization of Emotion  Elicitors  some cultures do things that are acceptable while other cultures are not  Receptors  ex. impulsivity  States  even infants are thought to have emotional states but they might not be consciously aware of it  Expressions  these are displayable emotions  Experience  in relation to physical environment, requires access to language o A year to 18 months  babies develop a sense of self and self-awareness o Infants have emotional states but it's not until you have a sense of self to experience an emotional state  Regulation  involves coping strategy; infants can regulate themselves by self-soothing Infant Emotional Expressions  We now have the technology to study emotions, temperament, social interaction and how they all interact with each other  Infants have emotion probably through the same expression (ex. infants cry if they're hungry or if they're angry)  Babies with depressed moms show less left frontal lobe activities and more distress and vice versa for babies with non-depressed moms  Cortisol can be measured through saliva Facial Expressions Through display rules, Children learn how to minimize, maximize, mask (you display a  different emotion than you really feel inside) and substitute their emotions  Affective or social referencing  Children learn from people around them, observing how those people show emotions in certain situations Emotional Experiences and Self-Esteem  Acting on self-efficiency and integrity  Moral self-approval is one of the measures of self-esteem o The person feels good about themselves (self-esteem) when they are self-approved morally  Self-worth  whether or not you feel you are being liked or loved by someone or you're loved by who you are  Competence  as in competence in different domains (ex. athletic, academic competence); you feel you do well in those areas  Low self-esteem can lead to depression and suicides  Social support can be a strong contributor to a child's sense of self-worth  You can manipulate children through self-esteem and learned optimism  Teaching children verbalizing your internal state and have labels for their emotions and actions angry sad LOW Ticked, annoyed, Upset, down, unhappy, tearful frustrated, upset MEDIUM Pissed off, irritated, mad Depressed, distressed, hurt, blue, miserable, heartbroken, empty/lonely HIGH Mad, raged, furious, Suicidal, devastated murderous, livid  Alexithymia  when someone is not in touch with their feelings or they don’t know the word for what they feel  These are the four basic emotions when people communicate  Brotherton and colleagues founds that children (as young as 18 months old) start to talking about their inner emotional state; having a sense of their own self o By 1 and a half, they let you know how they feel o By 2 and a half, they can evaluate the situation and can tell you why they're feeling the way they are  Children listen and learn the language of the emotions primarily through their family members (especially how parents resolve arguments in the family)  If there is a inconsistency between parents or within the parents where actions don’t match their words, there will be problems  Self of sense comes from the ruth's experiment (the thing on infants' nose)  Saarni  parents can directly instruct what to say and how to feel (socialization by direct instruction), what parents do is important to what the child says or does (modeling), parents might communicate to the child what to expect in a situation or at a gathering (communication of expectancies)  The four horsemen of the apocalypse (Gottman's): o Criticism (not the same thing as a complain, criticism is constant and more personal) o Contempt  where you are disgusted with the other person (you feel like you're superior to them and beneath you) o Defensiveness  they get defensive and try to protect themselves (you must be able to listen to the other person and hear out their complains) o Stonewalling  where you just react; you ignore and withdraw Emotion Coaching and Parents  4 different styles in parent-child relationships o Emotion coaching  helps the child to know that to feel secure, the parent will protect the child during tough situations; to help them to calm down and to regulate their emotions o Laissez-faire  parents don’t actively coach the child; they are understanding but they don’t take that extra step to help the child regulate o Dismissing (the person ignores the situation; the parents acts as if it's not important) o Disapproving (the parent actively disapproves the child)  5:1 ratio in stable marriages  more positive emotions and interactions  He suggested that he can predict how marriages will work out based on how the family interacts in his lab Emotion Regulation and Coping Strategies  As children age, they get better at problem solving, emotion regulation (what to feel at appropriate situations) o Internalizing behaviours  Avoidance, withdrawing o Externalizing behaviours  acting out and aggression  How parents cope with stresses can affect children's moods through modeling  Prosocial (empathy, sympathy and caring for other people), antisocial (the person shows disregard for other people's feel) Parental Emotion and Coping  Stress experience by parents vary by age of the child: ex. social academic issues, physical harm to the child or property, attachment issues  Parents are more likely to experience more stress with sons than daughters  Accepting responsibility is one of the best coping strategies and seeking substance is the least Emotion Specific Patterns  When feel angry, one way to resolve is to think about what constructive action can solve the problem o How to deal with anger in a constructive way  Sometimes the best way to overcome fear is to face fear Characteristics needed for Emotional Competence  Self-control on your impulses  Desire to accept social values  Social support from people around you Concluding Remarks:  Generational differences  there is cohort effects across generations as well, not just between cultures Discussions 1. Nonverbal skills  acting as a guide to children (ex. smile and hug the host and tell the child afterwards how they do that to respect others and thank them for dinner; books with facial expressions that teach emotions to children; telling the child not to laugh and smile at a funeral) 2. Verbal skills  physical activities to get the child to talk; some play groups will allow the child to subconsciously act out his/her emotions or what they make with toys might symbolize their current life and what they're currently experiencing 3. Sit down with the child and communicate what's on each other's mind; doing things together (ex. vacation, having a night out) 4. Reflecting on their emotions and the causes; listening to the child's story Richard Lazarus  Calls his model cognitive-motivational-relational model  Relation as in between individuals
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