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john b watson

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John B. Watson replaced introspection, investigations on learning in animals became the dominant focus of psychology which switched from thinking to learning. behaviourism can be defined as an approach that focuses on observable behaviour rather than on consciousness. Three types of learning:  Classical conditioning: o (Pavlov), unconditioned stimulus; a stimulus elicits a response with no prior learning. o Unconditioned response: the response elicited by an unconditioned stimuli. o Conditioned stimulithe conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. o Conditioned response: the conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. o Extinction: refers to the lowering of the probability of a response when a characteristic reinforcing stimulus is no longer presented.  Classical conditioning could instil pathological fear.  Operant Conditioning: o (Thorndike), law of effect: behaviour that is followed by satisfying consequences will be repeated and behaviour that is followed by unpleasant consequences will be discouraged (first called instrumental learning) o Skinner introduced operant conditioning, applied to behaviour that operates on the environment. He reformulated the law of effect by shifting the focus from the linking of stimuli and responses (S-R connections) to the relationships between responses and their co
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