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control groups

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 Imp feature is the inclusion of at least one control group that does not receive the experimental treatment. Necessary for comparative purposes  Found that treatment was successful reducing dysfunctional beliefs about worry. If there had not been a control group to compare improvement couldn’t have drawn a valid conclusion  Variables such as the passage of time are crdled confounds. Their effects are intermixed with those of the independent variable and like the 3 variables in correlational studies they make the results difficult to interpret  Studies in which the effect obtained cannot be attributed with confidence to the independent variable are called internally invalid studies. In contrast research has internal validity when the effect can be confidently attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable  Internal validity was improved by the inclusion of a control group but it hasn’t always ensure internal validity  Even b4 treatment the patients who received therapy might have had a lower level of deviant beg compared to those in the control group. This is a defective study cuz no random assignment  This procedure minimized the likelihood that diff between the groups after treatment will reflect pre treatment diff in the samples rather than true experimental effects  when groups are formed by random assignment confound such as the resolution of stressful life situation are equally likely to occur in both the treated group and control group The placebo effect  Placebo effect refers to an improvement in a physical or psychological condition that is attributable to a patients expectations of help rather than to any specific active ingredient in a treatment  The effects of pilgrimages to shrines such as Lourdes may be placebo effects  The placebo effect is commonly found and universally accepted in drug research. It has been estimated for ex that among depressed patients who respond favourably to antidepressant medication half are actually showing a placebo response  In psychotherapy the mere effect of being helped can be an active ingredient. Why? if the theory adopted by the therapist holds that positive expectancy of improvement is an active ingredient then improvement arising from the expectancy would by definition not be considered a place effect  “Placebo factors” should be replaced with the concept of “common factors” in the study of the effects of psychotherapy. They defined common factors as those that are common to most therapies  placebo control groups – patients in such groups typically have regular contact with a therapist and receive support and encouragement but they do not receive what is regarded as the active ingredients in the kind of therapy under study  neither the researcher nor the patient are aware if who has been placed in the treatment and placebo control groups.; the design is referred to as a double blind procedure  research reveals that patients in placebo control groups generally improve more than patients in treatment groups though often not as much as patients in treatment groups  properly designed psychological placebos are as effective as accepted psychotherapies  but using a placebo control group involves several problems. 1 it raises ethical issues for effective treatment is being withheld from some patients who might be harmed without treatment  2 a double blind
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