CHAPTER 10 – MOOD DISORDERS:
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MOOD DISORDERS:
mood disorders: involve disabling disturbances in emotion, from the sadness of depression to the
elation and irritability of mania.
DEPRESSION – SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
depression: an emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guilt
Depression in children often result ins in somatic complains. In older adults, depression is often
characterized by distractibility and complaints of memory loss.
Symptoms of depression exhibit some cross-cultural variation, probably resulting from differences in
cultural standards of acceptable behaviour.
Although it is commonly believed that people from non-western cultures emphasize somatic
symptoms of depression, while people from western cultures emphasize emotional symptoms, studies
suggest that people from various cultures tend to emphasize somatic symptoms rather than the
psychologizers: people who emphasize the psychological aspects of depression.
Most depression, although recurrent, tends to dissipate with time. About one third of depressed
people suffer from chronic depression.
MANIA – SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
Mania: an emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation accompanied by irritability and
impractical grandiose plans.
The person in the throes of a manic episode, which last from several days to several months, is readily
recognized by his loud and incessant stream of remarks, sometimes full of puns, jokes and rhyming...
FORMAL DIAGNOSTIC LISTINGS OF MOOD DISORDERS:
Diagnosis of Depression:
The formal diagnosis of a major depressive disorder MDD) requires the presence of five of the
following symptoms for at least two weeks.
sad, depressed mood, most of the day, nearly every day
loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities
difficulties in sleeping (insomnia), or a desire to sleep a great deal of time
shift in activity level, becoming either lethargic (psychomotor retardation) or agitated
poor appetite and weight loss, or increased appetite and weight gain
loss of energy, great fatigue
negative self-concept, self-reproach and self-blame, feelings of worthlessness, and guilt
complaints of evidence of difficulty in concentrating such as slowed thinking and indecisiveness
recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
what is controversial s whether a patient with five symptoms and a two-week duration is distinctly
different from one who has only three symptoms for 10 days. Even with fewer than five symptoms and duration of less than two weeks, co-twins were also likely to
be diagnosed with depression and patients were likely to have recurrences.
Five symptoms – increased weight, decreased weight, psychomotor retardation, indecisiveness and
suicidal thoughts – were not independently associated with the diagnosis. These findings have
implications for the possible revision of the diagnosis criteria for MDD.
MDD is one of the most prevalent of the disorders. Lifetime prevalence rates range from 5.2% to
MDD is abut two times more common in women than in men. The gender difference does not appear
in preadolescent children, but it emerges at age 14 and seems to be maintained across the lifespan.
Current and lifetime prevalence rates are higher among younger than older persons.
Participants with MDD who had certain coexisting personality disorders had a significantly longer time
to remission of symptoms than did MDD patients without any