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46-430 (52)
Habetler (52)

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 Research also shows permanent nerve damage  Deaths can result from an overdose  Phencyclidine: angel dust/ was developed as a tranquilize for hoses and other large animals, it causes serious negative reactions (severe paranoid and violence) coma and death are also possible Effects of Hallucinogens  Overflow from one sensory modality to another  Time passes slow  Loss of boundaries between one’s self and environment  Effects depend on the number of psychological variables in addition to the dose itself (the persons attitudes, expectation and motivations)  Bad trip – a full blown panic attack (fear of going crazy but its short lived)  Flashbacks: recurrence of psychedelic experiences after the physiological effects of the drug have worn off, also sometimes occur, most frequently in times of stress, illness and fatigue (haunts people for weeks or months after taking it) Etiology of Substance Abuse and Dependence  The person must first have a positive attitude toward the substance, then begin to experiment with using it, then begin using it regularly, then use it heavily and finally abuse it and become dependent on it Social Variables  Social world can affect people’s interest in and access to drug  Readily availability of the substance is also a factor  If both parents smoke, a child is 4x more likely to do so  Social milieu in which a person operates can affect substance abuse  The role of media must be considered  Advertising does influence smoking Psychological Variables Mood Alterations, Situations, and Role of cognition  Drinking occurs if the perceived benefits outweigh the costs  Drinking motives vary along 2 dimensions  the valence of reinforcement (positive vs. Negative) and locus (external reasons vs. internal personal reasons)  4 combinations are possible with these o Drinking for +, internal reasons reflect drinking to enhance positive mood o Drinking for - , internal reasons reflects drinking to reduce or avoid experiencing negative emotions o Drinking for +, external reasons reflects drinking to obtain social rewards o Drinking for -, external reasons would involve drinking to escape punishment or to avoid being embarrassed by other people  A principle reason for using drugs is to enhance positive moods and diminish negative ones (tension-reducing properties of alcohol by altering perception)  Alcohol myopia: the intoxicated person has less cognitive capa
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