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Lecture 22

46-330 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: James W. Pennebaker

Course Code
PSYC 3300
Ken Cramer

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Lecture 22 on Reciprocity
The Transparent Self
You have nothing to hide
People are transparent, they have no anxiety
Road to healthy mental life is to talk to self
But they are rules to disclosure, but the big rule is reciprocity
The dyadic effect peeling onions at the same rate reciprocity
We do not reveal self right away second rule of disclosure
Dyadic Effect
The intimacy grows with time
The lines A and B have matching intimacy growth
One member would take the lead but not overtake them
Exception in reciprocity Friends will want to vent/express their emotions (ex. a breakup)
Disclosure Among Friends
For strangers, we show reciprocity in the return message
Why do we reciprocate?
Attraction we disclose those we like and disclose to those who disclose to us
Norm of reciprocity
o We borrow the norms from other people's actions; we disclose the amount we feel
appropriate based on others
o We match disclosure to those we dislike as well
Subjects read profile of male or female high or low disclosers 4 variables
They also rated their relative level of mental adjustment
For females, we see a positive correlation with disclosure and adjustment
For males, we see a mismatch, males disclose less when less mentally adjusted
The well adjusted person knows when to disclose
These people are less anxious, are liked more by others
But the question is: how much does it take to hold it back?
Empirical Support
High self-disclosers are physically healthier less missed days, less sickness
Pennebaker & Beall (1986)
o Disclosure in diaries about either trivial or traumatic events for 4 nights
o Those who disclosed traumatic events after disclosure
o Those who disclosed trivial events missed work more, visited the doctor more
Duplicated last research but added a third group: talked about traumatic topics to a
Still looking at health problems and felt sad following disclosure; tracking them for 6
Same results: group 1 (trivial) had health problems and group 2 (traumatic) felt sad
following disclosure
Groups 2 and 3 derived benefits
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