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Lecture 18

46-330 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Social Cognitive Theory, Cognitive Psychology, Behaviorism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3300
Professor
Ken Cramer
Lecture
18

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Future of Psychological Theories
Psychoanalytic perspective
- Used to dominate psychology and psychotherapy
- Many psychoanalysts currently
- Projective tests are the third most widely used clinical tools
- Freudian psychology will shrink, but neo-freudian theories will grow
Trait psychology
- The dominant psychological perspective
- May continue to dominate for 30+ years
- More biological evidence as time goes on
- Better measures must be developed
- Traits may be specific to some people, but not all. Not all traits are predictive of
everybody
- Do we need more or less factors? How should we organize and synthesize them?
Behaviourism/social learning: extremism to moderation
- Behaviourism denied the organism
- In the 70’s, social learning widely accepted as opposed to behaviourism
- Fine line between behaviourism and cognition leads to social cognitive theory
Humanist/existential
- Meant to rival psychoanalysis and behaviourism
- Reaches to sociology, communications, religion, etc.
Cognitive perspective
- Took hold in many areas of psychology
- Because it is has only been around for a brief period of time, cognitive psychology
could be short-lived or persistent in personality theory and research
Assumptions of human nature
- Genetics and environment are generally believed to be equally important
- Mischel said person variables could not be used, and we must instead use situation
variables
Philosophical underpinnings: a cluster analysis
- Are people basically good or basically evil/selfish?
- Are people stable or changeable?
- Do we choose our lives/personalities or are there outside factors?
- Is the environment or genetics more important in determining our personality?
- Are we unconscious or conscious of what we do?
- Free will or determinism?
- Are we more alike or different?
- Dendrogram: joins entities sooner if they are more alike.
- Statistically, students enjoy Erikson’s theory
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