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Lecture 3

46-423 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Habituation, Dishabituation, Deductive Reasoning

Course Code
PSYC 4230
Kim Babb

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Summary of Preoperational Stage
Age Range: 2-6 (or 7) years
oCan think using symbols and mental images
oAlthough they can think and use mental images, they are
not good at it
o“Egocentric”: pay attention to one attribute of a situation
at a time
oUnsystematic and illogical in their thinking
Main accomplishment at the end of the stage:
Terms for the Concrete Operations Stage
Operations: Actions performed mentally that have the property
of being reversible
Reversibility: The ability to go mentally though a series of steps
and then return to the starting point
Concrete: Done with objects that can, in principle, be physically
acted upon or manipulated
Abilities of the Concrete Operational Child
Seriation: the ability to arrange items along a quantitative
Transitive Inference: the ability to do seriation, mentally
Example: If A>B, and B>C, then A>C
Class Inclusion: The principle that classes of objects can be
included in larger classes of objects
Inductive Logic: creating general rules based on experience;
reasoning from the particular to the general “all pumpkins are
orange” example
Summary of Concrete Operations Stage
Age range: 6 (or 7) – 11 years
oCan do tasks that preoperational children couldn’t do, like
conversation, seriation, etc
oCan think systematically, but only about concrete (reality-
based) objects or activities
oDi8culty reasoning about hypothetical situations in a
systematic fashion
oCan’t do abstract thinking
Main accomplishment at the end of the stage:
oBeing able to think abstractly
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