Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology 48-101 Lecture 7: Notes on Social Inequality

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Windsor
Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology

Lecture 7: Social Stratification and Inequality Social Inequality Causes and Consequences Concepts and theories Social Stratification  Who gets what, when and how? o Top 10% of the population gets almost 60% of wealth; whether they inherited it or they built the wealth themselves Social Stratification: concern with the nature, social causes and consequences of the  unequal social evaluations and distribution of resources among different population categories  social causes and consequences of unequal distribution of resources Social Inequality  Social inequality refers to structured and patterned inequality which is regular and recurring and which allows one group to control rights and opportunities more than other groups  The quality of life is miserably when you're poor, you don’t have resources when you're at the bottom (ex. crime rate is high in poverty)  Structured Violence (they are stressed just because of who they are; their wealthy/poor background) Social Inequality = hierarchy of structured social inequality  The hierarchy is based on the possession of: o 1- power (ex. political power) o 2- economic control (ownership)  they have control over their quality of life; what you want to do with your wealth o 3- wealth and/or income (ex. properties) o 4- ideological control; and o 5- prestige (social status; as follows) Prestige is based on evaluation of:  1- occupational status (society treats one occupation better than the other; the people decide which occupations to receive more prestige)  higher prestige scores with higher education  2- educational status  the higher education, the better job, the higher income  3- racial or ethnic status  society values some racial groups and devalue other groups  4- sexual status  society value males more than females  5- age status  ex. surveys usually focus in the middle-age group (young ppl are not experienced, old ppl are retired. Exception: what the surveys ask for)  6- level of power, economic control, wealth and income  different ways of where people stand in the system of inequality Social Mobility: Movement from one status to another  Inter-generational mobility  between parents and children  Intra-generational mobility  during one's lifetime  Downward (getting worse in social status) vs. upward movement (getting better in status)  **one's social class is measured by the person's parents social status (ex. education; The higher your parents' education background, the higher education degree for their children)  they motivate you to get higher education to get better jobs Social development and Inequality Foraging Horticultural and Agrarian Societies Industrial Societies Post-industrial Societies Pastoral Societies Societies No surplus Surplus Growing surplus Birth no longer Increasing Subsistence Emergence of Increased inequality destiny social No inequality significant social Based more on Development of inequality stratification ascription than talent encouraged Elites control achievement More social wealth Little social mobility mobility Types of Capital 1. Physical capital (Conflict Theory) 2. Human Capital (Functionalism)  ownerships of your own skills 3. Cultural capital (Weberian) Human, Physical, and Cultural Capital  Physical Capital: Sum total of means of production, wealth, money, etc.  Human Capital: Sum of useful skills and knowledge that an individual possesses (Is much evidence for link between schooling and income levels)  Cultural Capital: sum total of symbolic culture that individuals possess and display (i.e.,display of “taste” in fashion, food, music, literature, manners, travel, etc.)  Ex. Impression management  when one knows something that could impress the employer to get that job Functionalism (Davis and Moore)  human Capital  Social inequality is an unconscious device by society to allow fulfilment of important, hard and unpleasant jobs by the most qualified people.  Inequality is required to motivate people  Individuals are motivated to perform important and necessary tasks by differential reward. (the people who are motivated to undergo training and work hard should be rewarded.)  That helps the survival of the society  All societies are stratified  The most qualified person should do the most important job in the society (ex. a bus driver who doesn’t know how to drive a bus should not drive a bus. Jobs and Rewards  There are three kinds of rewards: o 1- material (high income) o 2- recreational o 3- symbolic (a medal of honour)  Who should get most rewards: o 1- functionally important (more emphasized jobs should get more rewards, ex. lawyers) o 2- relatively scarce o 3- highly emphasized Problem of the Theory:  Too individualistic  The most important jobs do not get most rewarded (ex. mothers)  The theory argues that the person is rewarded for their own success but it fails to look at the people who led them to succeed (the parent maybe should be rewarded for their children's success) Marxism: Social Classes  Social classes: are common structural positions within the social organization of production.  Ex. Individual’s relationship to the organization of Production.  To have production, we need people who owns properties, people who work, people who manage the work force  Criteria Social Classes 1 2 3 4 5 Bourgeoisie Yes Yes Yes Yes No Petty bourgeoisie Yes Yes No No No Managers No Yes Yes Y/N Yes Working class No No No No Yes 1- Owns means of production (do they own production?) 2- Controls means of production (do they control production?) 3- Controls labour power of others (the power of the individual to bring products to a higher value) 4- Purchases labour power of others (the ability to hire/fire other people) 5- Sales one’s own labour power Classes are:  Relational  their relation and understanding with each other  Conflictual  different interests in different groups (ex. workers want higher wages, managers disagree; thus, unions build up)  Exploitative  taking advantage of other people's ability, resources, productivity o Surplus-labour  the source of profit is in surplus labour; workers work more than they get paid o
More Less

Related notes for 48-101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.