Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology 48-101 Lecture 8: Notes on Race and Ethnic

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University of Windsor
Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology

Lecture 8: Race and Ethnic Relations Race and Ethnic Relations Ethnicity/“Race,” Racism Prejudice, Discrimination Theories of Ethnic/Racial Inequality Race = people with  Specific physical make-up (ex. hair colour, nose size, eye colour)  Shared cultural characteristics (same values, same history, same religion) Internally and externally differentiated (different among themselves and different  from other groups)  more externally differentiated than internally  Racism  the process of categorizing people on the basis of presumed physiological characteristics and correlating them with social psychological attributes Cognitive mapping of racism  People are ordered hierarchically by natural laws  Races differ in their ability to help development of society  Group's cultural achievements are due to their innate capabilities  “Inferior" races need help from the "superior" race  Struggle for equality of races is a struggle against truth and natural laws. Race Assumptions: Genetic and Human Structures  Antecedent Intervening Dependent  Condition Conditions Behaviour  Genotype Phenotype Social Behaviour  Genetic > Physical > Behaviour  Structure Characteristic Types of Racism:  Institutional racism  Established laws and relationships which systematically produce and reproduce differential treatment of various segments of society  Cultural Racism  Individual and institutional expression of the superiority of one group's cultural heritage over other group. Thy Vicious Cycle of Racism Physical markers are used to distinguish groups and created social inequality based on race by means of colonialism, slavery, etc. Different social conditions between superordinates and subordinates create behavioural differences between them (ex. energetic vs. lazy workers) Perceptions of this is the truth  comes back to point 1 Causes of Racism  Needs of Capitalism  Racial prejudice of individuals  Scientific mistakes  Religious justification  Manifest Destiny Problem with the concept of "Race"  Change of physical characteristics  Unknown historical origin of human (single origin or multiple origins; race is only applicable if we have multiple origins)  Racial migration  Inter-marriages  Misconception about physical attributes of race (measuring race solely based on physical characteristics)  Importance of physical environment Race/Ethnic Groups  World comprised of more than 200 countries and more than 50000 ethnic and racial groups  No country is racially and ethnically homogeneous Sociologists use "Ethnicity"  Ethnicity = People who have  Common ethnic descent  Common consciousness of a kind  Are viewed by others as an ethnic group Minority ethnic Groups are:  Deprived of some right  Have low socio-economic resources  Looked upon as having low status Ethnic identity:  Personal attachment to one's ethnic group  A positive orientation of being a member of an ethnic group  Common ancestry based on shared experience  Institutional completeness  Raymond Breton (Canadian ethnicist)  the higher IC, the higher ethnic identity (language, media, school, cultural food, religions; a culture needs all the necessities to survive in the society Types of ethnic orientation  Assimilationist  Pluralist  Secessionist  Militant Stereotype:  “A picture in the head,” based on
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