Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology 48-101 Lecture 9: Notes on Sociological Theories

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Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology
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Lecture 9: Sociological Theories Comte, Marx, Weber and Durkheim on Social Change Theory  Tentative interpretation and explanation of social reality.  Theory : Wide-ranging system of ideas, big ideas with far reaching consequences Enlightenment  Political Revolution - time to question church, religion; to question power; disorder in society  Industrial Revolution – new types of jobs  Socialism – poverty and ideal society  Urbanization – over crowding  Reformation - Protestantism  Science – natural sciences Auguste Comte 1798-1857  Coined “Sociology”  All individuals pass through three stages of o Affective: biological innate propensities (drive for survival; main reason that we act) o Cognitive: contemplation and reasoning (to reason and to understand the world around us) o Active: Prudent and firm in reasoning (act on their understanding in their own perspective) Change in Explanation  Similarly societies pass through three stages of development: Theological – act of gods Metaphysical – transitional, lawyers, military Positive - science  Sources of Change: o Population increase, division of labour, intellectual knowledge  Sources of Social Cohesion: o Language , Religion (past culture) o Division of Labour – linking people Karl Marx: 1818-1883 Modes of Production (divides society into ways of production  Social organization of production A-Forces of Production labour-power and human's productive experience (knowledge & skills) Means of production (technology, capital land, tools, etc.) B-Relations of Production 1. Forms of ownership of the means of production (collective or privately owned) 2. Forms of distribution of material wealth (distribution of wealth equal or unequal) 3. The places of social classes and their relationship in the society (Workers-capitalists, Serfs-landowners, slaves- slaveowners) Social Change  Primitive Communism (no Surplus labour) o Population Increase, Division of labour o Tribal Contacts and slavery Slavery (no formal or legal freedom) o Force  Surplus Value  inefficient system o Serf  Feudalism (formal and legal freedom) o Kings and lords’ loyalty, peasants and protection o Necessary and Surplus Labour o Traditional-legal sources of Surplus Value Marx – The last Class Society • 4- Capitalism: • Separation of direct producers from their means of production (e.g., economic crisis, money and commodity production, Enclosure Act) • Formal but not real Freedom • Economic pressure and Surplus value • Sources of Surplus Value Alienation= powerlessness • Types of Alienation • From product • From work • From oneself • From nature and others Sources of alineation Division of labour, Market structure, private property Crisis an
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