Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology 48-102 Lecture 1: All Lecture Notes

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Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology
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Patrick Lalonde

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Lecture Notes for 48-102 Elemental Sociology  Sociology  The science of social relationships  You're thinking based on common sense but it is the counter intuitive (the opposite)  We have biases (ex. ethnocentric)  We examine o how we participate in it and how the society functions o How to make a difference in the society o A way of understanding the world  Neo-liberalism  individualism  tends to look at the individuals and not something bigger  We all connected to each other in some way; like the metaphor of the roots under the trees, the roots are interconnected between trees  Individualistic thinking doesn’t solve the social problems; ignoring social problems  Sociological imagination  A quality of mind which enables individual to look at society as an outsider, to look at social focus which affect individual behaviour (Makes you think the original problem is social, outside the individual)  Interested as a society as a whole but also different individual characteristics  Depending on our characteristics, we see the society and the world differently Anthropological Imagination  Holistic  a world view  Ethnography  taking the perspective of other cultures than the researcher and interpret how members from that culture sees the culture Social Institutions and Social Change  Definition of Social institution  Examples of social institutions examined in class (Slide 3)  Social institutions are constantly changing; change over time  Martin Luther King's quote  social change takes time; we have to act like we CAN accomplish something, we have to stay positive  Social change happens gradually over time 6 main characteristics of social change  Universal  everyone is influenced by change; continuous  something that keeps going on over time  Occurs at all levels  whole society and every individual in the society  Takes place in social structure and culture  May be intentional (ex. Martin Luther King's racial movement) or unplanned (ex. technological changes)  Positive or negative consequences  Adoption/resistance to change Main sources of social change  Natural Environment  changes in the physical environment causing social change o Ex. Global warming  making people move to safer places, insurance companies have to adapt o Ex. Decrease in resources (ex. oil)  Demographic Change  changes in the size and distribution of population (how to calculate population: fertility, mortality/death, immigration) o Sex, age, races  demographics o Ex. Population size  thus pack people in cities o Ex. jobs, immigration (taking values and beliefs from other cultures) o Ex. increasing age of the babyboomers  thus burden on healthcare systems o Ex. too many people on natural resources (water, food)  New ideas  new ways of thinking that ultimately change how people think of the world; social movements o Ex. businesses going green, recycling, women's movement (feminism), prohibition, gay rights  New technology  has a potential to grow geometrically; a snow-ball effect o Ex. Facebook, the Internet, cell phones  Radically change how people communicate and interact o Ex. the automobile, airplanes, navigations (GPS)  Tension and Conflict o High levels of competition that inspire innovation o Wars  Social Movements  a form of collective behaviour that relates to organized … o Ex. gun control in the US, the occupied movement in Wall Street Modernity and Modernization  Modernity  social patterns  repeated set of characteristics or behaviours associated with the society  how we expect how we act  Modernization  change happening to social patterns  any significant alteration in values, norms, and beliefs 4 Major Characteristics of Modernization  Decline of small, traditional communities o Gemeinschaft  "community" (he says ex. family)  it's about having similar beliefs and values in a small collection; He finds:  Ascript status  you get your status from birth  Strong family units  Small communities o Gesellschaft  "society"  shared values and beliefs start to break down and people start to act what benefit them most (not necessary what the society means)  Status is no longer ascript; it is achieved through education o Mechanical (community) and organic (society) o Mechanical machines  everyone agrees; no conflicts  Expansion of personal choice  choice of jobs  Increasing social diversity  different cultures  Moving forwards and grow in time  Examples: cell phones  Too much constant change is killing our society Postmodernity and 5 main themes  Failed to solve social problems  Life is getting worse  Science doesn’t solve problems but create new problems, No singular truth but multiple truths  We don’t agree as much anymore Cultural Change  Diffusion, acculturation, transculturation  Diffusion  the ideas are moving between cultures (original culture meaning is not the same anymore) o Ex. McDonaldization  fast food at different countries  Acculturation  alien traits diffuse and take over traditional cultural patterns o Ex. completely replacing cultural values with another  Transculturation  what happens when a person moves to another society and adopts its culture o Ex. small scale transculturation  from high school society to university society Political Sociology  Distribution of power o White males in Canada at the top, particularly old white males, thus females would disadvantage in power) o Below would be a few families controlling the media such as the news, newspapers o Power thru socio-economic status, by race, levels of power Power and Authority  Power  the ability to control others; to make someone do what they don’t want to do  Authority  power that we think it is right and just  Coercion  power we don’t accept as morally right  Revolution  the collapse of authority Forms of Authority  Traditional  authority that is custom or tradition (ex. monarchy)  inherited traditions thru ex. bloodline (power was from in that individual or that of family)  Rational-legal  written rules ex. the constitutions, laws, contracts (usually in western cultures)  authority is held in the position and not in the person  Charismatic  authority based on exceptional qualities of a person that attracts followers Types of Government  Government  A formal organization that directs the political life of a society o Monarchy  single family rules from generation to generation  Constitutional monarchy o Democracy  gives power to the people as a whole  Representative  based on citizens (leaders chosen by the people)  Liberal  citizens enjoy regular, competitive elections and the freedoms of constitution protection that make election meaningful o Authoritarian  Totalitarianism  almost total control of the people (ex. north Korea)  Dictatorship  government state when a single person ceases power  Oligarchy  when a couple people cease power Theories of Political Power  Functionalism, Conflict Theory, Feminist Theory  Functionalism  all social functions contribute to the government o Pluralism  prevents one group from gaining control to overthrow the government  Conflict Theory o Power Elite  small groups that occupy the power positions of the society's most influential institutions o C. Wright Mills argues that the decisions are made by a team that have access to the higher power o Power Elite Model (SLIDE 10)  Feminist Theory  unequal access to power Canadian Political System  Parliamentary Democracy in Canada  figure head, prime minister, parliament building  Democracy  we choose our leader  Sovereign  the British (the Queen)  Governor General  David Johnson  A political party is an organization that competes for control of government in regular elections  Small "L" on the left and small "C" on the right of the spectrum  depends on what one talks about: a party (Capital letter) or the ideology (small letter)  Small "L" liberal  equality (universal public services such as equal access to education), pro-choice, respect for environment, socialism, union rights (collective bargaining), some ideas of communism (Marxist)  Small "C" conservatism  individualism (on your own), private businesses/properties, capitalism over socialism Aboriginal Self-Government  Separate from the main political parties  Literally "turning back the clock" Canadian Government View vs. Aboriginal View  Canada government views self-government as power granted by them to the aboriginals and giving them some rights but not all of them  Two different ideologies of self-government Interconnections  Politics with other fields of study such as economics, political science, etc. Power Resource Theory  There isn't a limited of power thus parties have to compete with each other for power  The shifting of distribution of power determines what party will be elected and get more access to power  Economy as most important of our social institutions o Economy looks at not just money, but how the economic system affects our daily lives o We need money to build other systems and institutions Capitalism  Pro: You make a lot of money  Cons: slaves to your own jobs (you're selling your labour just to meet basic needs); less mobility (born poor will stay poor); Socialism  Pros: regardless of amount of effort, the rich will always feed the poor  Cons: people that control resources and funding the people will get; creates a sense of entitlement in people (why work hard or even try when government will help me) Socialism  The government is robbing you and using your income to help others  Government stealing from the rich (theoretically work the hardest) to those who are lazy and undeserving  Guy in blue represents government  Blocking companies based on other countries from buying Canadian businesses  Government says no to selling Canadian businesses, thus CEOs are angry and causing conservatives to swing back  Another way the government regulate business is by regulating Resource Companies  The dairy market  cheese (heavily regulated by the Canadian government); prices on cheese are guaranteed to increase each year Economic Inequality  1-5% of the population are at the very top  The majority is at the bottom but they only own 2% of the population's wealth (capitalistic society) Global Economy  More and more products are produced in different countries (ex. car parts)  Corporation only goes after (or cares about) profits  Corporation meet all the criteria for a psychopath, but corporations do care about the environment and human rights, etc. Pros of neoliberalism  Heavy intervention by government Cons of neoliberalism  Why make cure when only few people are sick? There is no profit (pure neoliberalism would just let people die)  Hard to reenter the market if you lose your money  Inflation Shaman  Shaman cannot expect gifts in returned for giving out  They cannot refuse to gift when neighbours ask them for favours  Only gifted in terms of their labour  anti-economic  Definition of a family  blood-related members living together and giving each other emotion support  Most common function of family  socialization (one's ideologies and beliefs through family)  By banding incest, it is easier to define family  Family influences what education one gets, thus influences what job the person gets  Structural-functionalism perspective  Cross the diversity of family life and ignores the rules of other institutions  Major criticism of SF perspective  technology and how parents and children depend on technology and neglect less communication between their relationship  Breadwinner Ideology  women should stay home and men are out to work  Symbolic interactionism  people who more likely to form a relationship or marry of the same-age peers  The symbolic interactionism assumes we are rational beings Postmodernism  family pluralism  we don’t have one form of family anymore, nor a clear-cut definition of family
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