lecture 6 notes 12th September 2013

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University of Windsor
Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology

Lecture 6 notes Evidence : • Tangible ( things that can be touch , something solid) • Intangible ( things that cannot be touched, ex:- soil stains) Artifacts: ( they are tangible) • Created • Modified ***Artifacts are the tangible remains of the past that are a patterned reflection of the culture that produced them. Context: • Primary • Secondary How do archeologist prove past human activities? • They do it through analysis of tangible and intangible remains. Artifacts: when people make tools in the past they used tools. They chip off and break the stone until they get the required shape. The debris of stone is called heritage. There are even microscopic debris you can find and sometimes it can break with the slightest touch and need to be taken picture of it.There are also huge debris Artifacts: ( they are tangible) • Any object material or substance that is created or made, modified , used, deposited or affected by human action and is of cultural heritage value or interest. • Human create artifact and they modify some artifacts • Hammer stone( a hammer made of stone) • Creating artifacts is like making pottery • Modifying artifacts is changing something we already have. • Artifacts reflect the technology that produced them. • The artifacts reflects the values, uses or limitation a society or culture places on those object. • The artifacts itself is telling us what was important to those people and their culture. Context :=> • Means a lot in archeology • If something is out of context it means nothing • Context is where the evidence is and how it got there • What happen to it in the meantime? • What happen to it since they dropped it in the dirt or whatever happened? Primary context:- • When the original deposition is undisturbed( not disturbed) • Intact features are always in context • The house foundation is in context if they moved it then it's secondary context Secondary context :- • When the primary context has been wholly or partially altered or changed. • Some disturbance can partially or completely erase earlier primary context . **Context is very important is forensics ** Archeology is destructive: have to destroy some or all of the evidence in order to analysis it. Keep drawing drawn to cm scale and have photographs and analysis all that once we get into the lab after the field work. Artifacts represent culture, so we call it material culture. There are courses called material culture where we study artifacts. It can be the old artifacts or the modern artifacts. Artifacts are the material expression of people who lived in particular area at a particular time. It was the norm of the culture at that time. So the norm of that culture is thus represented in the archeological record. Scientifically. The study of changes in artifacts provides information on the Norms of shared ideals (ideas)??? that forms specific behavior in the past and which changed through time. • Life's of human is not just random, the things that they do forms pattern. Patterns patters everywhere!! • This is why archeologist study artifacts as well as features ( intangible feature that cannot be picked up). Cultural pattern are inferred from both the material culture remains and the stratigraphic remains. It's about interp
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