48-260 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Homicide, Mandatory Sentencing, Routine Activity Theory


Department
Sociology, Anthropology and Criminology
Course Code
SACR 2600
Professor
Mr.George Mason
Lecture
15

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Chapter 15_8ce
1. Identify and discuss critiques of rational choice theory and routine activities theory.
2. Using information from General Social Surveys, indicate how the pattern of who commits what crime against
whom fits with a lifestyle/exposure theory of crime.
3. To what extent does imprisonment deter crime?
4. Discuss the routine activities approach to crime, including its assumptions.
5. Describe Project Hope and the main results of its evaluation. What implications does this project have for
individualized deterrence?
6. Discuss the need for comprehensive crime prevention initiatives, emphasizing how different strategies can be
combined to most effectively reduce both the opportunities for crime as well as the root causes of criminal
behaviour.
7. Describe the efforts undertaken to reduce gang violence under Boston’s Operation Ceasefire, and document
the effects of the program.
8. Citing research findings, explain why minimum mandatory sentences such as those handed out under
California’s “three strikes” legislation do not have significant deterrent effects on crime.
9. Discuss the assumptions of rational choice theory and how this theory conceptualizes the decision-making
process of offenders as to whether or not to commit crimes.
10. What is meant by increasing the certainty of punishment? Provide on example of these strategies. To what
extent does this strategy deter crime?
11. What are mandatory minimum sentences? Cite specific examples of offences that are subject to mandatory
minimum sentences in Canada, including new provisions introduced by the federal Conservative government.
12. Describe the Perry Preschool Project and how it satisfies the dictates of crime prevention through social
development. What were the results of the project according to the most recent follow-up?
13. Describe crime prevention through social development. Compare and contrast this approach to situational
crime prevention.
14. Describe situational crime prevention, the assumptions underlying this approach, and the specific techniques
used to prevent crime.
Criminology 8th Canadian Edition Linden
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Chapter 15_8ce
15. Discuss the assumptions of environmental criminology and how this theory conceptualizes the decision-
making process of offenders as to whether or not to commit crimes.
16. Discuss the Winnipeg Auto Theft Suppression Strategy and how it represents a comprehensive crime
prevention approach.
17. Discuss the extent to which criminal laws are effective at preventing crime, citing research findings to
support your views.
Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
18. Which of the following is NOT an assumption underlying deterrence theory?
a
.
The best way to control crime is to set up a system of punishments to prevent crime.
b
.
Most people do not want to be punished.
c
.
Most criminal offenders are irrational people who do not weigh the costs and benefits of committing a
criminal offence.
d
.
Punishment should be swift and certain.
19. Which of the following is not a category of crime facilitators discussed in the textbook?
a
.
physical facilitator
b
.
social facilitator
c
.
chemical facilitator
d
.
psychological facilitator
20. In terms of Ronald Clarke’s categories of situational crime prevention techniques, which of the following is
an example of “reducing provocations”?
abreathalyzers in pubs
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.
b
.
neighbourhood watch
c
.
entry phones
d
.
separate enclosures for rival soccer fans at sports stadiums
21. Which of the following statements is true with respect to the deterrence effect of increasing
the certainty of punishment?
a
.
A large body of research does not support the deterrent effect of increasing the certainty of punishment.
b
.
A large body of research supports the deterrent effect of increasing the certainty of punishment.
c
.
Little research has been conducted into techniques that increase the certainty of punishment.
d
.
There are few techniques available to increase the certainty of punishment.
22. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons that has been put forth explaining why mandatory
minimum sentences do not deter crime?
a
.
Offenders may not feel they are at risk of getting caught.
b
.
The rate of incarceration for crimes is so low that harsh sentences only affect a small minority of
serious offenders.
c
.
Those with drug or alcohol abuse problems are probably not deterred.
d
.
Most offenders are quite aware of the sentence they face if convicted.
Criminology 8th Canadian Edition Linden
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