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Lecture 7

47-204 Lecture Notes - Classical Liberalism, Egotism, Human Nature

by OneClass2391629 , Fall 2017
4 Pages
66 Views

Department
Social Work
Course Code
47-204
Professor
Kelly Ann Spezowka
Lecture
7

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Lecture 7 204 September 28, 2017
Liberal Paradigms
Liberalism(s)?
- Instead of one unified theory of liberalism, there
- are multiple forms of liberalism
- They all agree that the freedom of individuals should
- be the foundation of society, but they disagree on:
o what is meant by “freedom” and “equality”
Which determines what kinds of governmental intervention are deemed
necessary and acceptable to promote “freedom” and “equality”
Classical Liberalism
- Has much in common with Conservatism
o “Freedom” = freedom to compete in the free market economy (capitalism); promotes
“laissez faire” capitalism as the ideal economic system
o Equality = equality of responsibility = everyone follows the same rules (laws)
o Inequality (in resources, wealth, etc.) is a natural result of competition under capitalism
and is a natural and accepted part of society
Reform Liberalism
- is most commonly understood as “liberalism” today
- Agrees with classical liberalism in that promotion of
- individual freedoms should be the priority of a society
- Differs from classical liberalism in that:
1. It acknowledges that unrestrained capitalism can be harmful
2. Governmental intervention can be a positive thing to address the most harmful
aspects of capitalism
Example: exploitation of labour (child labour, unsafe work conditions,
inadequate compensation for labour, etc.)
3. Equality in classical liberalism just means equality of responsibility (to follow the law)
whereas equality in reform liberalism means equality of opportunity
Liberalism & Nature of Human Beings
- People are naturally moral and rational
- Human nature is dual, in that, people are driven by:
o Egotism (self-interest)
o Altruism (concern for others)
- If people are provided with:
o Equality of opportunity
o Freedom from unnecessary social intervention, then they can provide for themselves
- Differs from conservatism in that society is viewed as being more than the sum of its parts
- Individuals interact with each other to promote their own individual interests, but there is also a
collective social interest
- Well-being of the individual cannot be considered apart from the well-being of society
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Description
Lecture 7 204 September 28, 2017 Liberal Paradigms Liberalism(s)? - Instead of one unified theory of liberalism, there - are multiple forms of liberalism - They all agree that the freedom of individuals should - be the foundation of society, but they disagree on: o what is meant by freedom and equality Which determines what kinds of governmental intervention are deemed necessary and acceptable to promote freedom and equality Classical Liberalism - Has much in common with Conservatism o Freedom = freedom to compete in the free market economy (capitalism); promotes laissez faire capitalism as the ideal economic system o Equality = equality of responsibility = everyone follows the same rules (laws) o Inequality (in resources, wealth, etc.) is a natural result of competition under capitalism and is a natural and accepted part of society Reform Liberalism - is most commonly understood as liberalism today - Agrees with classical liberalism in that promotion of - individual freedoms should be the priority of a society - Differs from classical liberalism in that: 1. It acknowledges that unrestrained capitalism can be harmful 2. Governmental intervention can be a positive thing to address the most harmful aspects of capitalism Example: exploitation of labour (child labour, unsafe work conditions, inadequate compensation for labour, etc.) 3. Equality in classical liberalism just means equality of responsibility (to follow the law) whereas equality in reform liberalism means equality of opportunity Liberalism & Nature of Human Beings - People are naturally moral and rational - Human nature is dual, in that, people are driven by: o Egotism (self-interest) o Altruism (concern for others) - If people are provided with: o Equality of opportunity o Freedom from unnecessary social intervention, then they can provide for themselves - Differs from conservatism in that society is viewed as being more than the sum of its parts - Individuals interact with each other to promote their own individual interests, but there is also a collective social interest - Well-being of the individual cannot be considered apart from the well-being of society
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