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HIST-2505 (1)

Lecture Notes

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Chris Dooley

Modern Canadian History Lecture Notes: Tuesday January 11, 2011: Canada after World War I: -Failure to plan led to: -Post War depression -Workers Revolt in Canada -Lack of jobs, housing ,etc. -Strikes (ex. Winnipeg General Strike) The Roaring 20's: -Period of prosperity for some; rising international trade and production -1921 was the first time in Canadian history that the number of people in cities exceeded the number of people on farms -Women cracked labour barrier -Social class, gender, and racial barriers became more fluid -People engaged in more of a service economy now (hotels, etc.) -Gave rise to a mass consumer (mass consumption) society -Beginning of advertising -Age of Hollywood: movies much more popular -Soap Opera came from radio shows that were sponsored by soap companies -People watching became critical, simply being out and about and socializing became popular -End of 1920's became a crisis Capitalism in Crisis: -Too much window shopping not enough peopple could afford goods -depressed wages in 1920's; production > demand -black Monday: stock crashes GNP in 4 years was cut in half Families in the Depression: Married men: -find work wherever they could -orphanages for children if single due to infections killing wives -state looked after them the most -bread winner ideology damaged mens psyche Married women: -many women abandoned b/c men couldn't provide so they were ashamed and took off -couldn't get welfare if men weren't proven dead Single women: -often laid off to protect wages of married men Single men: -trouble makers; had to exist outside of social support so often homeless and shoplifted- worry to the government -lots of seasonal workers Government response: -ignored crisis in 1929-30: William Lyon McKenzie denied it and lost election in 1930 due to this -R.B. Bennett treats it as a short term emergency (1930-32) -Tariffs: raised cost of living, disastrous policy -made federal $ available to municipalities for relief programs (public works projects) -depression as long-term crisis (1932-35) -22-33% unemployment -relief and concentration campus away from city -on to Ottawa trek and the Regina riot (from Vancouver travelled on trains) -Bennett's new deal -The King Years (1935-39) -caps on the dole (welfare; often in the form of cash or food stamps/vouchers) -farm placement-disbursed single men to different farms to work -saved by the war New parties and the politics of protest: -CCF (communist party) -Social credit -Union Nationale Conclusion: -Demobilization and reconstruction would be handled differently -acceptance of economic planning -belief in social security Thursday January 13, 2011: Canada's War: WWII at Home and Abroad: -WWII was a much more widely accepted war by all Canadians, including Quebec -1.1 million in uniform and many more in war-related industries; 42,000 Canadians Killed and 56,000 injured and this doesn't include those mentally harmed; hard to adjust to civilian life after the war -Truly a World War, took place all over the world -Most industrial advanced economy in the world after the War -Allowed women to gain social recognition -Hong Kong (1941), Dieppe (1942), and Bomber Command left soldiers badly damaged -AWar on civilians; 55 million people killed worldwide; a lot of targeting of civilians to demoralize the enemy; 150,000 people killed in Hiroshima Canada Enters the War: -Canada was Great Britain's greatest ally in the war; significant supplier -Alot of pilots were trained in Canada before the war: Commonwealth Training Program -Poorly prepared-no conscription; lack of artillery, soldiers, defence mechanisms, etc. -government scared to introduce conscription; voluntary enlistment -Due to depression initial enrolment was high -In early 1940's due to lack of soldiers; begin to recruit women. This helps battle having to introduce conscription -1941-45 5% of armed services were women; started off entry-level but advanced near end -Women were highly regulated and monitored Mobilizing for the War: -In 1938 1/50 paid income tax but by the war 1/5 were taxed -Significantly involved in the central planning of the economy -By 1945 civil servants doubled; creates 28 crown corporations (Alcan, Polymer Corporation) -Largest supplier of aluminum, plastic and rubber, and guns; CWB created to regulate grains -Industrial Disputes Investigations Act (1907) to ensure no labour interruptions-forced conciliations -lots of strikes, workers realized they were in high demand -1944 first time workers had the right to unionize Conscription Crisis: -Beating around the bush about conscription -Most Canadians in 1942 voted yes (Most Quebec residents voted no however). -Conscription happened but those men stayed at home -Conscientious objectors-10,000 men rejected due to personal reasons-were given different jobs Home Front: -Government begins to sell victory bonds to generate capital to fund the war -Wage and price controls to keep inflation stable and cost of living down; led to rationing -Women enter non-traditional jobs at home as well (ex. Mechanics, construction foreman, etc.) -# of women in paid work doubles in 4 years -1943 the government for the first time begins to operate day care centres to free women to work -Kids didn't meet father until after the war -Alot of work to be done to re-unify families after the war A war for Democracy: -1939 Defence of Canada Regulations introduced -National Film Board largest producer of documentaries by the end of the war -Alot of suspicion of enemies within the country; 100,000 enemy aliens registered -Mostly fair for enemy aliens except for European Refugees and the Japanese -Didn't except Jews from Poland and Germany and ones that were here were treated poorly (3,000 total during war) -Japanese required to evacuate B.C. Due to being successful and their background Canada at the War's End: -Wealthy and industrialized -New sense of citizenship -EI, Family allowance, day cares, labour laws, etc. all givens after the war -New roles for women socially -Divided by conscription, especially in Quebec -Unresolved human rights record Tuesday January 18, 2011: Getting It Right the Second TimeAround: Demobilization and Reconstruction after the Second World War: Demobilization: Getting them Home: -900,000 in Uniform; 350,000 Overseas; 48,000 War Brides; 22,000 War Children -Took almost a year to get everyone home -Many relationships started while waiting overseas to come home -Big project to transform the war-time industries -Soldiers getting antsy to get home The Long Shadow of 1919: -Went back to massive unemployment, sky rocketing prices -Great War Veterans'Association (1918) was one of the first significant lobbyist groups in Canada Planning for Reconstruction: -Second world war was not to make the same mistake as was made in the first world war -In 1940 (start of war) already starting to plan for demobilization and reconstruction; createAdvisory Committee on De-Mobilization and Reconstruction (1940) -1942 is when the government starts to really get serious about planning for the end of the war -Industrial Development Board (1942) responsible for transferring Canada into a market-based economy not a command-based economy -National Housing Act (1942) was in place to deal with the shortage of housing in Canada Three New Ministries (1944): -Department of Veterans' Affairs: responsible for attending to the needs for veterans (ex. Getting war brides home, resettlement of veterans, training programs, etc.) -Ministry of Reconstruction: manage transition back to the Canadian economy (peacetime economy), trying to avoid crashing post-war depression -National Health and Welfare: charged with developing some kind of social security system and first it was to collaborate with Department of Veterans' Affairs for physical and mental health issues in veterans The Veterans' Charter (1944): Opportunity with Security: -Policies in place to protect the rights of returning veterans (jobs, housing, compensation, etc.) -Package of promises -Right to reinstatement: right to get a job that you had before war back; priority for work -Unemployment Insurance: If you can't find job get some of this social assistance -DischargeAllowances: golden handshake upon leaving service (startup $, clothing allowance) -More...(cheap life insurance, pension when you retire) -Rehabilitation & Disability Pensions: in place to get veteran's back in workable condition or if you were too badly physically or mentally injured you get LTD -Education: right to complete education when returning to war -Employment Counselling & Business Loans: cheap loans for start up company -Veterans' Land Act: grants to people to build own homes Social Security & the Beginnings of the Welfare State: -Definitions of Social Security & Welfare State in powerpoint* -John Maynard Keyn's coined idea that depression can be worsened by scared consumers (save more, spend less) -Unemployment Insurance (1940): contributory insurance; mandatory insurance; protection against unemployment -Social Security in Canada -The Beveridge Report (U.K., 1942): by Sir William Beveridge-important theorist of social security -not talking about socialism but rather that capitalism could prosperity -cradle to grave state; basic health services from birth to death
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