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Lecture

Childhood in the industrial Era

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Department
History
Course
HIST-2514
Professor
Sharon Wall
Semester
Winter

Description
Childhood in the industrial era: changes and continuities A.) key aspects of industrialization Happens much later in Canada than in any other country. Avocation of science and technology to  production Increase of urbanization as a result of industrialization Transition from subsistence to a wage economy.  Separation of home and work. These become 2 different places  Population change, people start having on average smaller families  1851: average family size 7 children 1921, average family 3.4 children especially in middle and upper classes this was true, working class and immigrants may have been  having more families  key features of new view of childhood 1.) are dependent 2.) required special protection  they are not mini adults, they have special needs and they are vulnerable especially susceptible to bad influences 3.) delaying of adult responsibilities  B.) “ideal” breadwinner wage Father is the only one who has to work and with his wage he could support his entire family, no one  else would have to work Not true in a lot of cases, these people had switched to a family wage economy. More than one  wage contributed to the family Mother did non­wage work, generally Budgeting, shopping most likely every day Children still do fair amounts of work, both paid and unpaid. Gathered firewood or coal yards C.) reality of the family wage economy  urban children and  paid work: Ontario and Quebec one of the children was the second wage earner  usually the children of the poorest families  older children were sent off to work before the younger children  boys worked more in factory work than girls did, and boys got paid 2x as much as girls  younger 
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