Class Notes (807,001)
Canada (492,560)
Psychology (82)
PSYC-1000 (9)
Mike Lee (1)

Intro Psych Chapter 14 Personality.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Winnipeg
Mike Lee

 Psychologist seek simple, but powerful ways to categorize people to allow for predictions Understanding Human Personality  Central- what make us different from others o Scientific study of individual differences. o Consistency versus individuality; enduring and unique characteristics and traits that are persistent over time and space. o Intrapersonal processes  A look at the self, the subjective, private part of us that lend coherence and order to our behaviour. o For the average person, personality is often in terms of attractiveness (ex. She has a great personality!" Theories of Personality  What are the sources of consistent behaviour patterns and intrapersonal processes? Type and Trait Perspectives  Type theories classify people according to one or another distinct personality types o Non-overlapping categories  Hippocrates, 5th Century B.C. o Fluid types; personality based on dominant type present. o Modern barber shop pole representative of "blood letting"  William Sheldon, 1942 o Endomorph, Mesomorph, and Ectomorph  Frank Sulloway, 1996 o Born to rebel- birth order o Darwin- organisms diversify to find niches in which they'll survive. First borns have a ready-made niche while later borns have to carve out new ones. However, there is mixed data on this topic as there are a variety of factors.  Myers-Briggs & The P.T. Barnum Effect o Used by employers yet it’s supported by weak data o The Forer/Barnum Effect  Took personality test, but everyone received the same result that was based on a horoscope found in the paper that day. The average rating they gave the accuracy was 4.2/5. Pseudoscience and Personality  Subjective/personal validation effect o Tendency to accept vague and general personality descriptions as uniquely applicable Problems with Types  Strict type approach makes several assumptions not easily justified o Even seen with Type A and Type B personalities Trait Approach (Gordon Allport, 1937)  Assumptions: o Traits are dispositional to behaviour o Personality traits are relatively stable over time o Personality trait are consistent over situations o Situations are "functionally equivalent"  Situational versus personality o Individual differences result from differences in the strength and combination of traits  Gordon believed that the words we used to describe ourselves/others provides a window on the human personality. Words can be separated into 3 types: 1. Generalized dispositions called cardinal traits (one word descriptions; ex. Honest Abe) 2. Central Traits are less pervasive but still generalized dispositions. 3. Secondary Traits; more specific, narrow traits such as anxiety before a test or personal preferences. Personality Profiling  Sam Gosling (2002) o Does your room give away your personality?  Neat people more likely to be introverts and extraverts are more messy  Behavioural residue (like secondary traits) show changeable aspects of personality, but still offer clues about a person at a specific time in their life.  Criminal profiling Common Versus Unique Traits  Cattell agreed with Allport  Problem was to identify the few basic traits (source)  He used factor analysis to analyze the correlations among a large number of variable, in this case trait words. The goal was simplification.  Trait co-variation s define high order factors (ex. Humorous, amusing, and popular have high correlations and potentially one source; therefore one word could be used).  Cattell's 16 Personality Factors The Big Five (The OCEAN of Personality)  Emerged from ratings using English language trait adjectives o Extroversion o Agreeableness o Conscientiousness o Neuroticism o Openness Super Traits  Based on degrees/scales you fall on for individual differences  Supported by cross cultural analysis and heritable analysis. Big 5 +/- 3 or More  Melancholic, choleric, Phlegmatic, and Sanguine.  Based on stability and extroversion Criticisms of Trait Approach  Circular reasoning (does the trait of behaviour come first).  Largely descriptive, but lacks explanation  Static, doesn't address personality growth  Statistics appear more objective/impressive than they really are.  However, trait approaches that link to biological/genetic factors are more powerful then is the…. Consistency Paradox  Trait approach assumes consistency  The person-situation controversy o Walter Mischel  Specific behaviours from one situation to the next are not always consistent in the same person  Although people's traits persist over time, human behaviour varies widely from situation to situation with a cross-situational consistency of <0.30. o Cheating and Stealing Study  Both of these behaviours are dishonest, but there was no correlation found between the two behaviours. o Situationists versus Dispositionists  Person by situation interactions (ex. An otherwise stable individual may become neurotic over a bad grade).  Personality lies in if-then patterns  Consistency most likely to emerge in similar situations Situationism  Taken to its extreme, views traits as mere illusions  See people in the same situation time and time again so we tend to associate the behaviours with their personalities based on this.  Has been met with strong criticism  Over long periods of time and over many situations consistency is evident. Interactionism  Synthesis of traditional trait view and situationism- person x situation interaction  Bandura called this Reciprocal Determinism o Personal/cognitive factors interact with the environment to influence people's behaviour o "I won't do well in this class, so I will socialize instead and fail". Nature and Nurture of Personality  To what extend are your parents responsible for who you are?  Tendency t blame/credit parents  Parents do have n important influence on personality o Our first real close relationship with others o Affect our expectations with relationships  Temperaments are different at birth  Heritability of Big 5=0.5  Personality of adopted children are not at all related to the personality of their adoptive parents.  Non-shared environment o Many formative life experiences occur without the presence of parents  Forming relationships with peer is more important than doing so with parents  Judith Harris, 1998 o Pa
More Less

Related notes for PSYC-1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.