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October 16th notes.docx

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University of Winnipeg
Kelley Robinson

Social Psychology I 16/10/2013 3:03:00 PM Detecting Deception  How accurate is the average person at detecting deception? o Only slightly better than chance; BUT training and practice can improve one’s skills, i.e., federal officers have over 70% and law enforcement have just over 50% Why are people bad at detecting deception?  Zukerman et al. 1981 o Mismatch between the behaviours that actually signal deception and those used by perceivers to infer deception  i.e., people touching their noses means they’re lying or untrustworthy -> inferred deception o Cues  Words -> easy to control  Face -> easy to control  Body -> hard to control (fidget, restless)  Voice -> hard to control (best cue; pitch raises/hesitation when lying)  when is a poker face not a poker face? -> the best poker face for bluffing is not a neutral face, but a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness (looking happy) TED Talk: Jeff Hancock: 3 Types of Digital Lies Attribution Theory  when you’re trying to explain “why”  Heider o people are naive scientists piecing together information to arrive at reasonable cause; people are curious by nature o dichotomy of attributions:  internal: caused by something about individual  external: caused by something outside of individual (situational) o what are the factors that will motivate someone to make an internal vs. external attribution to what’s going on?  Kelley’s Covariation Model o When we form attributions we pay attention to a lot of things, systematically noting the presence of factors -> 3 key pieces to make a good attribution:  Consensus: do others behave similarly in this situation?  Internal or external attribution? If someone stood up in lecture and sang broadway songs you think…it’s weird, violation of the social norm, individual/internal (don’t see others typically doing that)  Consistency: does the person usually behave this way in this situation?  If the same student sang songs every class then it’s all about that person; typical for that person  Distinctiveness: does the person behave similarly in different situations? Why is Jessica Biel into Justin Timberlake?  Justin Timberlake and Jessica Biel reportedly sneak kisses at In Time premiere party? On again/off again relationship…why o Internal: it’s something about Jessica o External: it’s something about Justin  Consensus: do others behave similarly in this situation? o i.e., Britney and Madonna and crazy about Justin too  Consistency: does the person usually behave this way in this situation? o i.e., Jessica is always crazy about Justin  Distinctiveness: does the person behave similarly in different situations? o i.e., Jessica is crazy about Justin but not excited by Tom or Steve Consensus Distinctiveness Consistency Internal LOW LOW HIGH External HIGH HIGH HIGH Abnormal Circumstance - - LOW The Self  Why are human beings so different from all other animals? o Possess a soul? o Use tools? o Have language? o Have culture? o Have true intelligence? o Have a capacity for symbolic self-awareness!  Human beings have a sense of self; imagine yourself in the future, becoming your best “self” -> perceiving yourself in an abstract way  Only because human beings have a capacity for self-awareness can they: o Think consciously about the future -> do I want to study right now or go have a drink with friends? How will this impact me later? o Introspect on their inner states -> am I happy or annoyed? o Evaluate their personal characteristics -> I am talkative, is that a good thing or a bad thing? o Imagine how they are perceived by others -> How do people perceive the fact that I am talkative? o Engage in volitional self-change -> this is what I want to do or be, and to actively change to attain those goals Executive function of the self: Self-Regulation  Self-regulation: exerting control over the self’s behaviours, choices and plans for future -> managing your own behaviour o Carver and Scheier, 1988:  Self-regulation is based on a feedback loop which monitors the extent to which behaviours are congruent with goals -> some people are better than others, but even someone who is the worst at self-control is not really as bad as they think (hitting snooze 5 times, you eventually get up) -> everyone engages in self-control Self-Awareness and Self-Regulation  Self-awareness theory: when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behaviour with their internal standards and values -> how do you get people to engage in self-regulation? I
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