Class Notes (808,753)
Canada (493,377)
Psychology (82)
PSYC-2620 (8)
Hammond (8)

chapter 10.doc

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Winnipeg

CHAPTER 10MOOD DISORDERSGENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MOOD DISORDERSmood disorders involve disabling disturbances in emotion from the sadness of depression to the elation and irritability of mania DEPRESSION SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSdepression an emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guiltDepression in children often result ins in somatic complains In older adults depression is often characterized by distractibility and complaints of memory loss Symptoms of depression exhibit some crosscultural variation probably resulting from differences in cultural standards of acceptable behaviour Although it is commonly believed that people from nonwestern cultures emphasize somatic symptoms of depression while people from western cultures emphasize emotional symptoms studies suggest that people from various cultures tend to emphasize somatic symptoms rather than the emotional symptoms psychologizers people who emphasize the psychological aspects of depression Most depression although recurrent tends to dissipate with time About one third of depressed people suffer from chronic depression MANIASIGNS AND SYMPTOMSMania an emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation accompanied by irritability and impractical grandiose plans The person in the throes of a manic episode which last from several days to several months is readily recognized by his loud and incessant stream of remarks sometimes full of puns jokes and rhymingFORMAL DIAGNOSTIC LISTINGS OF MOOD DISORDERSDiagnosis of DepressionThe formal diagnosis of a major depressive disorder MDD requires the presence of five of the following symptoms for at least two weeks sad depressed mood most of the day nearly every dayloss of interest and pleasure in usual activitiesdifficulties in sleeping insomnia or a desire to sleep a great deal of timeshift in activity level becoming either lethargic psychomotor retardation or agitatedpoor appetite and weight loss or increased appetite and weight gainloss of energy great fatiguenegative selfconcept selfreproach and selfblame feelings of worthlessness and guiltcomplaints of evidence of difficulty in concentrating such as slowed thinking and indecisivenessrecurrent thoughts of death or suicidewhat is controversial s whether a patient with five symptoms and a twoweek duration is distinctly different from one who has only three symptoms for 10 days Even with fewer than five symptoms and duration of less than two weeks cotwins were also likely to be diagnosed with depression and patients were likely to have recurrences Five symptomsincreased weight decreased weight psychomotor retardation indecisiveness and suicidal thoughtswere not independently associated with the diagnosis These findings have implications for the possible revision of the diagnosis criteria for MDDMDD is one of the most prevalent of the disorders Lifetime prevalence rates range from 52 to 171MDD is abut two times more common in women than in men The gender difference does not appear in preadolescent children but it emerges at age 14 and seems to be maintained across the lifespan Current and lifetime prevalence rates are higher among younger than older persons Participants with MDD who had certain coexisting personality disorders had a significantly longer time to remission of symptoms than did MDD patients without any personality disorder kindling hypothesis the notion that nce a depression has already been experiences it takes relatively less stress to induce a subsequent recurrence What is not clear is whether the apparent reduced role of life events stress in subsequent depressions is because depression has become autonomous and no longer requires stress the autonomy hypothesis or whether the person has become sensitized to stress the sensitivity hypothesis and even small amounts of stress are sufficient to induce depression Diagnosis of Bipolar DisorderBipolar I Disorder involving episodes of mania or mixed episodes that include symptoms of both mania and depression A formal diagnosis of a manic episode requires the presence of elevated or irritable mood plus three additional symptomsSome clinicians do not regard euphoria as a core symptom of mania and report that irritable mood and even depressive features are more common The following symptoms must be sufficiently severe to impair social and occupational functioningincrease in activity level at work socially or sexuallyunusual talkativeness rapid speechflight of ideas or subjective impression that thoughts are racingless than the usual amount of sleep neededinflated selfesteem belief that one has special talents powers and abilitiesdistractibility attention easily divertedexcessive involvement in pleasurable activities that are likely to have undesirable consequences such as reckless spendingoccurs less often than MDD occurs equally often in men and women like MDD tends to recurHETEROGENEITY WITHIN THE CATEGORIESSome bipolar patients experience the full range of symptoms f both mania and depression almost everyday termed a mixed episode Other patients have symptoms of only mania or only depression during a clinical episode Bipolar II disorder patients have episodes of major depression accompanied by hypomania a change in behaviour and mood that is less extreme than fullblown mania Some depressed people may be diagnosed as having psychotic features if they are subject to a delusions and hallucinations a useful distinction among people with unipolar depression Depression with psychotic features is more severe than depression without delusions and involves more social impairment and less time between episodes Some patients with depression may have melancholic features where people find no pleasure in any activity and are unable to feel betterPatients with melancholic features had more comorbidity ie with anxiety more frequent episodes and more impairment suggesting it may be more severe type of depression
More Less

Related notes for PSYC-2620

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.