Actuarial Science 2427A/B Lecture Notes - Cognitive Dissonance, Observational Error, Nazi Germany

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Published on 23 Sep 2012
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Chapter 13 lec notes psych- Conformity
We behave differently than when someone is watching us and if they’re not. That presence does
not have to be real. We can think someone is there, and really there is no one
Feeling like youre being watched alters your behavior
Some tasks you can behave vetter or worse, its dependant
Social facilitation- ideas are improved by th presence of others.
Trumen- people cycling, saw that people did better in groups.
Chen- found that ants carries more dirt when with others than by itsef. So they would lift heavier
in groups than alone.
Simple vs. complex. Performance improves on simple tasks others are present but becomes worse
if the task is complex.
The good, the bad and the ugly
The good= pro social behavior
o Tausght prosocial norms through modeling
o Noms of reciprocity
o Norms of responsibility
The bad and ugly
o With trials (1450- 1700)
o We were in the enlightnemnt period. Believed individuals were linked to the dark forces.
o 12000 people died over this period
o other estimate 60,000
o some suggest well over 100,000 people were killed.
How could this happen?
o Conformity
o Grop think
o Obeidience to authority figures
Nazi germany
o This is obedience to a group, conformity
o Between 9 and 11 million deaths!!!
o How is this explained?
o Normberg war trials
Some individuals said they were following orders. Absolved of guilt. How is
this idea explainable? Good people doing bad things? How can normal people
do this? How is it explained?
o Some think- time and place thing.
o Is this is the case, we would never do that? Are Americans really any different? Decent
people don’t behave this way, right?
Prison study
o Took students, normal and put them as prisoners and prison guards, and saw how they
behaved. And things got really bad, really quickly. Again one may say this was done a
while back, no we see the same continues today.
o See zimbardo.
Clicker Q-1 ANSWER- Attributions
Social thinking and perception
WE MAKE JUDGMENTS OF OTHERS AND OUR OWN THOUGHT PROCESSES.
These attributions are made differently, how we look at others and ourself. We have to take into
account the personality of the person and the environment.
Personal attributions- internal about the individual themselves, their characteristic
External attribution- something abiut the situation that made them behave that way
Attribution error- systematical error or systematic bias. Infrencing. We often undervalue or
overlook the importance of the immediate effect.
We can make errors in deciding why people are the way they are
Information used in making an attribution
o Consistency- how consistent is it over time?
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o Distinctiveness- apply to this situation or all situations
o Consensus-
Situationa attribution= all 3 are high
Personal- consistency is high or low
Fundmental attribution error- when explaining other’s behavior
Tend to:
o underestimate IMPACT OF SITUATIONAL FACTORS
o OVERESTIMATES
o WHEN WE SEE OURSELVES, IT FLIPS
Even when informed role was assigned
Situational information was ignored
When we are the ones doing something situational, we don’t think were lunatics, we think the
situation is guding our behavior.
Applies to others not ourselves. Why?
We have more information about ourselves, we know our personality, and we know what is
happening to us.
This attribution error is not inevitable.
Self serving bias- more personal attributions for success
More situational attributions for failures
Strengths depends on psychological state and culture
Depressed people- more personal attributions for failures
When we succeed its personal, when we fail we blame others
Individualistic cultures- more personal attributions, western bas
Collective culture
Attributions play a key role
Primacy effect: first impressions
o Attach more importance to initial information
o Tend to be most alert to information received forst
o Initial information may shape how we perceive subsequent information
Recency effect- as new information comes in it can counter the initial representation, but it has to
work twice as hard
Recency effect ma increase when
o Avoid making snap judgments
o Reminded to consider information carefully
o Feel accountable for judgments
CLICKER Q2- STEROTYPE
Stereotypes
o Mental sets and schemas
o Mental set
o Perceive world in particular way
o schemas
o mental frameworks that organize and interpret information
o stereotypes
Generalized belief about group or category
powerful type of schema
selffulfilling prophecies
o creating what you expect
o self fulfilling prophecies
o expectations affect behavior toward others causing expected behaviors that confirm
expectations
cognitive dissonance-
attitudes- positive or negative evaluative reactions towards a stimuli
supported by personal beiliefs and values
3 factors feed into attitude
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Document Summary

We behave differently than when someone is watching us and if they"re not. That presence does not have to be real. We can think someone is there, and really there is no one. Feeling like youre being watched alters your behavior. Some tasks you can behave vetter or worse, its dependant. Social facilitation- ideas are improved by th presence of others. Trumen- people cycling, saw that people did better in groups. Chen- found that ants carries more dirt when with others than by itsef. So they would lift heavier in groups than alone. Performance improves on simple tasks others are present but becomes worse if the task is complex. The good, the bad and the ugly. The good= pro social behavior: tausght prosocial norms through modeling, noms of reciprocity, norms of responsibility. The bad and ugly: with trials (1450- 1700, we were in the enlightnemnt period.

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