Chapter 13 lec notes psych.docx

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Actuarial Science
Actuarial Science 2427A/B
Kim Luton

Chapter 13 lec notes psych- Conformity  We behave differently than when someone is watching us and if they’re not. That presence does not have to be real. We can think someone is there, and really there is no one  Feeling like youre being watched alters your behavior  Some tasks you can behave vetter or worse, its dependant  Social facilitation- ideas are improved by th presence of others.  Trumen- people cycling, saw that people did better in groups.  Chen- found that ants carries more dirt when with others than by itsef. So they would lift heavier in groups than alone.  Simple vs. complex. Performance improves on simple tasks others are present but becomes worse if the task is complex.  The good, the bad and the ugly  The good= pro social behavior o Tausght prosocial norms through modeling o Noms of reciprocity o Norms of responsibility  The bad and ugly o With trials (1450- 1700) o We were in the enlightnemnt period. Believed individuals were linked to the dark forces. o 12000 people died over this period o other estimate 60,000 o some suggest well over 100,000 people were killed.  How could this happen? o Conformity o Grop think o Obeidience to authority figures  Nazi germany o This is obedience to a group, conformity o Between 9 and 11 million deaths!!! o How is this explained? o Normberg war trials  Some individuals said they were following orders. Absolved of guilt. How is this idea explainable? Good people doing bad things? How can normal people do this? How is it explained? o Some think- time and place thing. o Is this is the case, we would never do that? Are Americans really any different? Decent people don’t behave this way, right?  Prison study o Took students, normal and put them as prisoners and prison guards, and saw how they behaved. And things got really bad, really quickly. Again one may say this was done a while back, no we see the same continues today. o See zimbardo.  Clicker Q-1 ANSWER- Attributions  Social thinking and perception  WE MAKE JUDGMENTS OF OTHERS AND OUR OWN THOUGHT PROCESSES.  These attributions are made differently, how we look at others and ourself. We have to take into account the personality of the person and the environment.  Personal attributions- internal about the individual themselves, their characteristic  External attribution- something abiut the situation that made them behave that way  Attribution error- systematical error or systematic bias. Infrencing. We often undervalue or overlook the importance of the immediate effect.  We can make errors in deciding why people are the way they are  Information used in making an attribution o Consistency- how consistent is it over time? o Distinctiveness- apply to this situation or all situations o Consensus-  Situationa attribution= all 3 are high  Personal- consistency is high or low  Fundmental attribution error- when explaining other’s behavior  Tend to: o underestimate IMPACT OF SITUATIONAL FACTORS o OVERESTIMATES o WHEN WE SEE OURSELVES, IT FLIPS  Even when informed role was assigned  Situational information was ignored  When we are the ones doing something situational, we don’t think were lunatics, we think the situation is guding our behavior.  Applies to others not ourselves. Why?  We have more information about ourselves, we know our personality, and we know what is happening to us.  This attribution error is not inevitable.  Self serving bias- more personal attributions for success  More situational attributions for failures  Strengths depends on psychological state and culture  Depressed people- more personal attributions for failures  When we succeed its personal, when we fail we blame others  Individualistic cultures- more personal attributions, western bas  Collective culture  Attributions play a key role  Primacy effect: first impressions o Attach more importance to initial information o Tend to be most alert to information received forst o Initial information may shape how we perceive subsequent information  Recency effect- as new information comes in it can counter the initial representation, but it has to work twice as hard  Recency effect ma increase when o Avoid making snap judgments o Reminded to consider information carefully o Feel accountable for judgments  CLICKER Q2- STEROTYPE  Stereotypes o Mental sets and schemas o Mental set o Perceive world in particular way o schemas o mental frameworks that organize and interpret information o stereotypes  Generalized belief about group or category  powerful type of schema  selffulfilling prophecies o creating what you expect o self fulfilling prophecies o expectations affect behavior toward others causing expected behaviors that confirm expectations  cognitive dissonance-  attitudes- positive or negative evaluative reactions towards a stimuli  supported by personal beiliefs and values  3 factors feed into attitude o situaltuional factors are weak  does behavior influence attitude?  Cognitive dissonance theory  Strive for consistency in cognititon  Two inconsitent cognitions cognitive dossonance Counterattitudinal behavior  Inconsistent with one’s attitude  Produces dissonance if freely chosen  I chose to do this does that mean I actually believe? Attitudes And persuaion  Persuasion- getting people to do what you want them to do  3 aspects: o communicator- have to be appearing to be credible, how trustworthy are they? Are they trustable? Even if we know that person or knowing e have a connection they can have other famous people vouch for them, they can bring in other people whom we have an association with, we then can think if they think its good, then it may be. o message audience- the best way is to present them a 2 sided refutational approach. Example the opposition proposition argument, refuting two platforms, while having a bised message . extreme or moderate arguments- how extreme is it, be careful. If we dknow the audience that we know we’re going after is far away from our beliefs, we have to take a moderate message. Get them to think the same way as you slowly. Or it will alienate them. A lot of the times they use a fear tactic. You will see the use of emotion a lot and all the time, through the US campaigns. They can try to persuade through the I know you, so let’s relalte feelings. If they wat you t behave or vote a certain way, they will use the fear, but only in certaink ways, if you can get afraid and theres an easy way to get out of that fear, you’ll do what they want you to do. o Audience- knowing what and who wants your message. When you try to pesuade people, you have to
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