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Lecture 17

Anatomy and Cell Biology 3309 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Perimysium, Collagen, Epimysium


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 3309
Professor
Kem Rogers
Lecture
17

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The Heart
Introduction:
The heart is a muscular pump that pumps blood around the body
Right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood, and
pumps it to the lungs to get oxygen; then the left side of
the heart (stronger) pumps the oxygenated blood to the
rest of the body
Circulation divided into the pulmonary circuit and the
systemic circuit
4 chambers: right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium,
and left ventricle
Chambers are separated by interatrial and
interventricular septae
Valves in the heart:
oAtrioventricular valve between each atrium and
ventricle
oSemilunar valves at the opening of the pulmonary trunk
and aorta
Interventricular septum
Blood flow through the heart: deoxygenated blood from vena cavae  right atrium
right ventricle  pulmonary trunk  pulmonary arteries  lungs  pulmonary veins
left atrium  left ventricle  aorta  rest of the body

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Arteries = anything that carries blood away from the heart; veins = anything that
carries blood towards the heart  doesn’t have to do with
oxygenated/deoxygenated blood
Walls of heart consist of cardiac muscle and a fibrous CT skeleton (made of dense
irregular CT)
Functions of the fibrous skeleton: site of cardiac muscle attachment (via dense
irregular CT – blue part), site of valve attachment, electrically insulates the atria
from the ventricles
Coverings of the Heart (from outside  inside):
Usually take sections from the left ventricle since it is the thickest
Always some adipose tissue on the outside to protect the heart
Fibrous pericardium
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oMade of dense irregular CT  to resist tension in multiple directions
because heart muscles expand in many directions as it contracts
Serous pericardium
oMade of two ‘layers of mesothelial cells
Parietal layer (outer)
Adheres to inner layer of fibrous pericardium
Layer of specialize simple squamous epithelium 
mesothelium
Fluid-filled pericardial cavity is in between the parietal and
visceral pericardial layers
Cushions the heart
Doesn’t cover the entire heart, just the bottom part
Visceral layer (inner)
Forms the outer surface of the heart
Layer of specialized simple squamous epithelium 
mesothelium
oParietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium are actually
continuous with each other  punching a balloon
The serous pericardium layers are
glossy because it is just a single
layer of mesothelial cells.
Coverings of the Heart
(outside  inside):
Epicardium
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