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Lecture 41

Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319 Lecture Notes - Lecture 41: Biliary Tract, Zymogen, Abdominal WallPremium

2 pages124 viewsFall 2016

Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

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41. Small Intestine, Large Intestine, and Accessory Organs
Describe the duodenum and its associated structures (i.e. pancreas and gall bladder).
Describe the visceral surface of the liver. What structures entering the porta hepatis ontriute to the triads of the liver ?
Describe the distinguishing features of the jejunum and ileum.
Define the following terms: epiploic appendages, plicae semilunares, taenia coli and haustra.
Describe the anal canal and the processes involved with defecation
Small Intestine
Duodenum is the first part of the small intestine
o Begins at the pyloric sphincter from the stomach
o Secretions from gall bladder & pancreas enter here for digestion
o Retroperitoneal within peritoneal cavity via secondary development
o C-shaped superior, descending, and transverse part
Head of pancreas is nestled into here
o Descending duodenum contains major duodenal papillae which receives secretions from gall bladder & pancreas
o About 25cm in length
o Contain plicae circulares for increased surface area
Pancreas Accessory organ
o Secondarily retroperitoneal
o Exocrine & endocrine organ Many exocrine acinar glands + few
clusters of endocrine cells (islets of Langerhans)
Acinar cells secrete at least 22 kinds of pancreatic enzymes
for digesting food
o Enzymes are secreted as inactive zymogen granules which become
activated in the duodenum
o Common bile duct & major pancreatic duct joins to form a chamber
(called hepatopancreatic ampulla) to secrete secretions out of the
major duodenal papillae via the sphincter of Oddi
Gall Bladder
o Stores bile
Left & right hepatic duct come together to form the common hepatic duct
The bile then travels up the cystic duct to enter the gall bladder
o If the gall bladder is removed, you will still have bile, but it will be released as a steady drip. Also, the bile will not
be concentrated (i.e. as effective)
o Control mechanism: In response to a fatty meal, duodenum secretes cholecystokinin (CCK), which travels through
the circulation to act on the gall bladder, causing contraction of muscular wall
o Gallstones Result from precipitation of bile salts. Can become lodged in the biliary system
Treatment includes ultrasound to break up the stones
o Double layer of visceral peritoneum
Parietal peritoneum is lining the abdominal wall
More than 200 important functions.
o Synthesis & secretion of bile
o Storage of glycogen and lipid reserves
o Synthesis and release of cholesterol bound to transport proteins
o Inactivation of toxins (alcohol, carbon tetrachloride)
o Maintenance of normal blood glucose, amino acid and fatty acid concentrations
o Blood storage (major contributor to venous reserve)
o Synthesis of plasma proteins and clotting factors
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