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Lecture 43

Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319 Lecture 43: Urinary Tract 2 - Bladder and Urethra
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Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Professor
Peter Merrifield

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43. Urinary Systems 2 Ureter, Urinary Bladder & Urethra
Objectives
Describe the course of the ureter. Where are kidney stones most likely to lodge?
Describe the urinary bladder, with special reference to the trigone.
Describe the structures and neural mechanisms which regulate micturition.
Compare the urethra of the male with that of the female.
Ureters
Expandable muscular tubes
Convey urine from kidney to bladder
Begin at level L2
o Recall that kidneys are T12-L3
25-30 cm in length
Descends retroperitoneal
Enters pelvis at bifurcation of common iliac artery
Enters posterior bladder wall
3 possible points of constriction
o Ureteropelvic junction
o Pelvic brim/inlet as the ureters pass over the common iliac
arteries
o As ureters enters into the bladder wall
Clinical Condition: Calculi (Kidney Stones)
Precipitated uric acid, calcium, magnesium or oxalate
Stones can form in kidney and travel through ureter
May get lodged along the way
Pain desried as loin to groin
Bladder
Urachus (in embryo) = Median Umbilical Ligament (in adult)
o Hooks up the apex of the bladder to the anterior abdominal wall
(near belly button)
Superior, posterior, left & right interolateral surfaces
Posterolateral angles (two) contain the insertion point for ureters
o This side of the bladder is known as the base
Inferior Angle/Neck connects the urethra to the bladder
Interior of bladder contains convoluted folds of mucosal lining except for the smooth triangular region, trigone
Angles of the trigone contain openings for two ureters and the urethra
Neck of the detrusor muscle is specialized as a sphincter the internal urethra sphincter
o Guards the opening to the urethra
o Involuntary sphincter
Inferior to the internal urethra sphincter, the urethra passes through a second sphincter
external urethral sphincter (sphincter urethrae muscle) of the urogenital diaphragm
o Voluntary muscle
o Responsible for controlling urine flow
Ureteric Openings - Where the ureters connect inside the bladder wall. Posterolateral
angles
Internal Urethral Orifice Urethra opening. Muscular wall is concentrated in this area giving rise to the internal urethral
sphincter
Urethra
Bladder outside of the body
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Description
Left renal anery Right renal artery Right kidney ureteropelvic junction Common lac artery -pelvic inlet Internal lac anery External iliac anery to bladder Medi bili garment Apex Urachuss Superior Ureters Anterior angle Body Posterolateral angles Base Lett interclateral surface Neck (inferior angle) 9 and Urethra Trigone Rugae Ureteric openings Interna Detrusor muscle Urethral Orifice Left renal anery Right renal artery Right kidney ureteropelvic junction Common lac artery -pelvic inlet Internal lac anery External iliac anery to bladder Medi bili garment Apex Urachuss Superior Ureters Anterior angle Body Posterolateral angles Base Lett interclateral surface Neck (inferior angle) 9 and Urethra Trigone Rugae Ureteric openings Interna Detrusor muscle Urethral Orifice43. Urinary Systems 2 – Ureter, Urinary Bladder & Urethra Objectives • Describe the course of the ureter. Where are kidney stones most likely to lodge? • Describe the urinary bladder, with special reference to the trigone. • Describe the structures and neural mechanisms which regulate micturition. • Compare the urethra of the male with that of the female. Ureters • Expandable muscular tubes • Convey urine from kidney to bladder • Begin at level L2 o Recall that kidneys are T12-L3 • 25-30 cm in length • Descends retroperitoneal • Enters pelvis at bifurcation of common iliac artery • Enters posterior bladder wall • 3 possible points of constriction o Ureteropelvic junction o Pelvic brim/inlet as the ureters pass over the common iliac arteries o As ureters enters into the bladder wall Clinical Condition: Calculi (Kidney Stones) • Precipitated uric acid, calcium, magnesium or oxalate • Stones can form in kidney and travel through ureter • May get lodged along the way • Pain described as “loin to groin” Bladder • Urachus (in embryo) = Median Umbilical Ligament (in adult) o Hooks up the apex of the bladder to the anterior abdominal wall (near belly button) • Superior, posterior, left & right interolateral surfaces • Posterolateral angles (two) contain the insertion point for ureters o This side of the bladder is known as the base • Inferior Angle/Neck connects the urethra to the bladder • Interior of bladder contains convoluted folds of mucosal lining – except for the smooth triangular region, trigone • Angles of the trigone contain openings for two ureters and the urethra • Neck of the detrusor muscle is specialized as a sphincter – the internal urethra sphincter o Guards the opening to the urethra o Involuntary sphincter • Inferior to the internal urethra sphincter, the urethra passes through a second sphincter – external urethral sphincter (sphincter urethrae muscle) of the urogenital diaphragm o Voluntary muscle o Responsible for controlling urine flow • Ureteric Openings - Where the ureters connect inside the bladder wall. Posterolateral angles • Internal Urethral Orifice – Urethra opening. Muscular wall is concentrated in this area giving rise to the internal urethral sphincter Urethra • Bladder  outside of the bodyFemale Urethra Uret Detr m Internal Urethral Sphincter Urogenital. diaphragm External Sphincter Male Urethra Internal urethral sphincter Prostate gland External urethral sphincter e Bulbourethral gland duct Corpus spongiosum External urethral orifice Urethra Rectum Levator ani: pubococcygeus iliococcygeus Co External urethral Sphincte
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