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Lecture 47

Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319 Lecture 47: Female Reproductive Tract - Uterus, Vagina, Perineum
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Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Professor
Peter Merrifield

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47. Female Reproductive System II – Uterus, Vagina & Perineum
Objectives
Describe anatomy of vagina
Identify external genitalia and anatomical features
Compare male and female reproductive & perineal structures
Vagina
Tubular fibromuscular organ
Cervix of uterus enters vagina at ~ 90°
oForms deep recess – fornix
Vaginal orifice
Three layers
oOuter adventitia
oMiddle muscularis
oMucosa with transverse rugae
Functions:
oExcretory duct for passage of menses
oReceives penis & ejaculate (sperm)
oBirth canal
oCommunicates superiorly with cervix
Relations:
oAnterior: Base of bladder & urethra
oLateral: Levator ani, pelvic fascia, ureters
oPosterior: Anal canal, rectum, rectouterine
pouch
Uterine artery branches off into vaginal artery to innervate the vagina
Pelvic Diaphragm
Levator ani (pubococcygeus & iliococcygeus) & coccygeus
Forms floor of pelvis and supports pelvic organ; also forms roof of perineum
Urogenital Diaphragm
Pelvic diaphragm  urogenital diaphragm
External urethral sphincter
Urethrovaginal sphincter* - Sphincter running around vagina; runs between external urethral sphincter & deep transverse
muscle
Deep transverse perineal muscle
oCovered with perineal membrane
Contains deep perineal vessels and nerves
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Description
47. Female Reproductive System II – Uterus, Vagina & Perineum Objectives  Describe anatomy of vagina  Identify external genitalia and anatomical features  Compare male and female reproductive & perineal structures Vagina  Tubular fibromuscular organ  Cervix of uterus enters vagina at ~ 90° o Forms deep recess – fornix  Vaginal orifice  Three layers o Outer adventitia o Middle muscularis o Mucosa with transverse rugae  Functions:  Relations: o Excretory duct for passage of menses o Anterior: Base of bladder & urethra o Receives penis & ejaculate (sperm) o Lateral: Levator ani, pelvic fascia, ureters o Birth canal o Posterior: Anal canal, rectum, rectouterine pouch o Communicates superiorly with cervix  Uterine artery branches off into vaginal artery to innervate the vagina  Pelvic Diaphragm  Levator ani (pubococcygeus & iliococcygeus) & coccygeus  Forms floor of pelvis and supports pelvic organ; also forms roof of perineum  Urogenital Diaphragm  Pelvic diaphragm  urogenital diaphragm  External urethral sphincter  Urethrovaginal sphincter* - Sphincter running around vagina; runs between external urethral sphincter & deep transverse muscle  Deep transverse perineal muscle o Covered with perineal membrane  Contains deep perineal vessels and nerves  Superficial Perineum  Pelvic diaphragm  Urogenital diaphragm  Superficial perineum  Erectile bodies (crus and bulb) o Females have bilateral bulbs around the vagina (males have a single midline structure) o Left and right crus come together to form the clitoris  Greater vestibular gland * - Homologous to bulbourethral gland of males; lubricates vagina during excitation  Ishcocavernosus muscle  Bulbospongeosus muscle – Helps support opening to vagina  Superficial transverse perineal muscle  Perineal body  Urogenital triangle is attached to perineum membrane  Clinical Correlations – Inj
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