Document Summary

The finer, lighter bones of the upper limb are required for complex grasping, reaching, and lifting. The heavier much stronger bones of the lower limb stabilize our weight and are required for powerful movements during walking and running. Movements of the limbs: flexion is bringing the arm closer to the body at the elbow and extension is extending the arm out away from the body. Supination is when the palms are facing out (as in anatomical position) and pronation is the opposite. Abduction is away from the midline and adduction is towards the midline. Lateral rotation is rotation away from the midline (as in turning the ankle out to the side) and medial rotation is rotation towards the midline. Protraction is pushing forward (arms straight out pushing against a wall) and retraction is pulling back (pulling arms back behind you). General features of the limbs: the upper and lower limbs share a common general outline.

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