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Anatomy and Cell Biology 4461B Lecture Notes - Gadolinium, Ct Scan, Aconitase

Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 4461B
Geordie Shepherd

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JL Lecture 2: The Role of Imaging in Prostate Cancer
1. Clonal expansion, growth, diversification and angiogenesis
2. Migration through the basement membrane
3. Invasion through the extracellular matrix
4. Intravasation
5. Interaction with host blood cells
6. Formation of tumor embolus
7. Arrest in capillaries and adhesion to basement membrane
8. Extravasation
9. Metastatic deposit and growth in secondary organ
Metastasis is extremely inefficient; less than 0.01 of cell that originated from the primary tumor
actually metastasize.
Models of Prostate Cancer
Other than man, dog is the only animal known to have spontaneous high grade PIN
and prostate cancer and have similar disease characteristics including age of onset,
metastasis and androgen independence
Cell Culture Models
Some prostate cancer cell lines have androgen receptor signaling and are isolated
from different areas of metastasis (lymph node, bone or brain)
2D models - One part of the cell is attached to a dish, one part is exposed to medi-
3D models - Morphology changes dramatically when you add the cells to a 3D en-
Animal Models
Xenografts - can be subcutaneous or orthotopic (in the prostate). Location of the
tumor affects tumor growth.
Genetic - allows investigators to generate accurate models of human malignancies
through the expression of oncogenes, knock-in of genetic point mutations and
knock-out of tumor suppressors central to the human malignancy studied. For ex.
haploinsufficiency of PTEN is an early event in prostate tumorigenesis, resulting in
the development of high-grade PIN. Complete loss of PTEN results in the progres-
sion to an invasive prostate cancer.
Drosophila - Recent discoveries have showed us that...
Overexpression of myc leads to hyperproliferation of cells
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