Answers_to_Review_Part7_16.doc

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Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course
Anatomy and Cell Biology 2221
Professor
Eric Ball
Semester
Fall

Description
Part 7.16 Food/Nutrient–Drug Interactions Review the Information 1. Polypharmacy is defined as taking many medications concurrently, which increases the risk of drug–drug interactions, drug–nutrient interactions, and nutrient–drug interactions, and therefore the risk of adverse effects. For more information, refer to: Chan L-N. Drug-nutrient interactions. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, et al., eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th Ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006:1539–1353. Pronsky ZM, Crowe JP Sr. Food-drug interactions. In: Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, eds. Krause’s Food, Nutrition, & Diet Therapy. 11th Ed. Toronto, Ontario: W.B. Saunders Company, 2004:455–474. 2. Individuals at risk of polypharmacy include: - Elderly people - Individuals with chronic illness(es) - Individuals suffering from many concurrent medical disorders - Clients under the care of different health care specialists, possibly for many different disorders - Clients taking self-prescribed medications purchased over the counter - Individuals who do not give feedback to their physician(s) about the medications (prescribed and nonprescribed) they are taking For more information, refer to: Chan L-N. Drug-nutrient interactions. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, et al., eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th Ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006:1539–1353. Pronsky ZM, Crowe JP Sr. Food-drug interactions. In: Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, eds. Krause’s Food, Nutrition, & Diet Therapy. 11th Ed. Toronto, Ontario: W.B. Saunders Company, 2004:455–474. 3. b) corticosteroids 4. a) Antacids 5. Vitamin K 6. e) All of the above Understand the Concepts 1. Here is how these terms can be defined. a) Pharmacy is the knowledge and science of conserving, mixing, preparing, dosing, and administering drugs. Pharmacy also refers to a licensed location or facility where medications are prepared and dispensed. b) Pharmacology is the knowledge and science of drugs, including the study of their sources, development, appearance, composition, therapeutic use and value, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicology. c) Pharmacodynamics is the part of pharmacology concerned with drug action at the biochemical level (e.g., at the cell receptor level) and the physiologic effect of drugs on living organisms, such as humans. d) Pharmacokinetics is the part of pharmacology concerned with drug movement within living organisms, including the study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. e) From a pharmacologic standpoint, an interaction refers to the fact that the joint effect of two or more entities is distinct from the addition of their individual effects, such as in antagonism or synergy. f) Drug–drug interaction refers to a combined effect of two or more drugs that is distinct from the effect of each individual drug and that increases the risk of adverse drug effects. g) A drug–nutrient interaction refers to the combined effect of a drug and a nutrient that is distinct from the effect of that drug or nutrient alone, and that increases the risk of adverse effects of the drug on the metabolism of the nutrient and vice versa. The terms “drug–nutrient interactions” are often loosely used to refer to both the adverse effects of a drug on nutrient metabolism (adverse drug–nutrient interaction) and the adverse effects of a food or a nutrient on drug metabolism (adverse food/nutrient–drug interaction). In addition, the terms “food–drug interactions” are often broadly used to refer to both drug–nutrient interactions and the effect of a drug on the nutritional status of individuals. h) Toxicology is the knowledge and study of adverse effects due to drugs (illicit or medical), substance overdose, and poisons, including their source, composition, kinetics, action, physiologic effects, tests, and management (e.g., antidotes). i) Bioavailability refers to the degree and rate at which an administered substance, such as a drug, is absorbed into the systemic circulation of a living organism and becomes available at the target site of physiologic activity. j) Biotransformation refers to the modification of the molecules of a substance (such as a drug) from one form to another within a living organism, through a chemical reaction (e.g., reduction, oxidation, conjugation, hydrolysis), and usually accompanied by alteration of its pharmacologic activity, such as degradation or activation. k) From a pharmacologic standpoint, the half-life of a substance, such as a drug or a biochemical marker, is the period of time necessary for the serum concentration of that substance to be reduced by 50% from its steady-state concentration. l) A side effect is a secondary result from the administration of a substance (such as a drug) or the use of therapy aside from the desired therapeutic effect, often connoting an undesirable outcome or adverse reaction. m) Precipitation is the process of transformation of a soluble substance in suspension into an insoluble solid compound (or precipitate). n) Chelation is the formation of a complex,
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