Psychology intellegence.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 2221
Doug Hazlewood

Psychology- Intelligence Readings Intelligence is not something that has concrete existence; it is, instead a socially constructed concept Intelligence= the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively and to deal adaptively with the environment Intelligence In Historical Perspective Sir Frances Galton and Alfred Binet set the stage to measure intelligence and discover its causes Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability Strongly influenced by Darwins theory of evolution Galton, in his book, showed through the study of family trees that eminence and genius seemed to occur within certain families. Galtons research convinced him that eminent people had inherited mental constitutions that made them more fit for thinking than their less successful counterparts Believed that the more social you were was biologically the reason you were more intelligent Believed that the skull size reflected brain volume and hence intelligence Alfred Binets Mental Tests Binet was interested in solving a practical problem rather than supporting a theory. Made 2 assumptions about intelligence: o Mental abilities develop with age o The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time- as a child grows whether at age 5 or 10, the child will always be behind in intelligence Binet created a test in which he asked teachers to come up with average questions, to separate the slow kids from the average kids. There would be a score in the end, a mental age Mental age- the age at which the child is thinking. Example would be an 8-year-old thinking at a 10 year olds level. His mental age would be 10, but true age 8. Practical implication was that educational attainment could be enhanced if placement in school were based at least in part on the childs mental age William Stern Intelligence quotient (IQ)- was the ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100: IQ= )mental age/ chronological age) X 100. A child who performed at his/ her level would have an IQ of 100. A child with mental age of 10 and chronological age of 8. IQ= (10/8) X 100= 125 Binets Legacy: An Intelligence Testing Industry Emerges Lewis Terman, came up with a revised test to Binets called the Stanford- Binet. This test included mostly verbal items, and it yielded a single IQ score ARMY ALPHA- a verbally oriented test that was used to screen large numbers of US Army recruits for intellectual fitness. Because some recruits were unable to read, a non verbal instrument using mazes, picture completion problems, and digit symbol tasks was also developed and given the name ARMY BETA David Wechler developed a major competitor to the Stanford Binet. Wechler believed that the Stanford- Beneit relied too much on verbal skill. He thought intelligence should be measured as a group of distinct but related verbal and non-verbal abilities. Weschler tests are the most popular today. The Nature Of Intelligence Psychologists have used 2 approaches: o The psychometric approach- attempts to map the structure of intellect and to discover the kinds of mental capacities that underlie test performanceo Cognitive Process- approach studies the specific thought process that underlie those mental capacities The Psychometric Approach: The Structure Of Intellect Psychometrics- the statistical study of psychological tests. Tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual differences in performance. It tries to provide measurement- based map of the mind Factor Analysis To answer questions about intelligence, researchers administer diverse measures of mental abilities and then correlate them with one another If they correlate with one another highly (cluster mathematically) then performance= probably reflects the same underlying mental skills. If the tests within a cluster correlate highly with one another but much less with tests in other clusters then these various test clusters probably reflect different mental abilities. Factor analysis= reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters or factors with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables in other clusters. A factor allows us to infer the underlying characteristics that presumably accounts for the links among the variables in the cluster. a factor analysis tells us that there are 2 different factors. It identifies the clusters for us It is up to us to examine the nature of the tests within each cluster and decide what the underlying factors might be. The g Factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity Charles Spearmen- observed that school grades in different subjects, were almost always positively correlated, but not perfectly. He found the same to be true with Beneits tests. Spearmen concluded that intellectual performance is determined partly by a G FACTOR, or general intelligence, and partly by wh
More Less

Related notes for Anatomy and Cell Biology 2221

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.