Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319 Lecture 46: Female Reproductive Tract - Ovaries and Uterine Tubes

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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

46. Female Reproductive Tract I – Ovaries & Uterine Tubes Objectives  Describe the structure, general function and location of the uterus, uterine tubes and ovaries  Trace the course of an ovum from ovulation to implantation.  Define the term broad ligament and identify its constituent parts  Describe the contents of the suspensory ligament  Describe the path and significance of the round ligament  Describe the uterine blood supply and the changes that occur during menstruation. Function of Female Reproductive System  Produce ova  Secrete sex hormones  Receive spermatogonia  Site for fertilization, implantation, development *Note: Female reproductive system is focused on nurturing embryos, and not copulation like the male reproductive system)  Facilitate parturition  Provide nourishment for infant  Note: Also includes mammary glands & placenta Reproductive Structures  Primary Sex Organs – For sex hormone secretion (estrogen & progesterone) o Gonads (ovaries) o Gamete Production (ova)  Secondary Sex Organs – For successful fertilization and development o External genitalia – Superficial perineum o Vagina – Accessory duct o Uterine tubes – Accessory duct o Uterus – Accessory duct o Mammary glands Peritoneal Folds  Suspensory Ligament – Suspends ovaries from lateral wall of cavity; contains arteries, veins, and lymphatics. A lateral continuation of broad ligament  Round Ligament – Runs through inguinal canal; serves no purpose (previously the gubernaculum of the female)  Rectouterine Pouch – Pouch between rectum and uterus  Vesicouterine Pouch – Pouch between bladder and uterus  Urogenital Diaphragm – Muscles & membranes which support the organs/viscera  Posterior Fornix – Created because the uterus intrudes into the vagina (cervix)  Note: A layer of peritoneum folds over all the structures  Broad Ligament o A large fold of peritoneum that hangs from the uterus & fallopian tubes like a tent. Contains:  Mesosalphinx – Attached to fallopian tubes; above mesovarium  Mesovarium – Attached to ovaries  Mesometrium – Rest of broad ligament, contains uterine artery  Ovarian ligament – Attaches ovaries to the side of the uterus; continuous with round ligament (just a slight area that is adhered to the side of the uterus)  Round ligament (of uterus) – Continuous from ovarian ligament; descends through mesometrium & inguinal canal, anchors into labia majora. o Ovaries are not covered by the peritoneum, but are attached to the posterior surface of the broad ligament. Ovaries  Internal structures include: primordial follicles, primary follicles, oocytes, granulosa cells, secondary follicles, graffian follicles, corpus luteum, corona radiata
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