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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesOct 411 The diencephalon contains the thalamus hypothalamus epithalamus pineal gland and subthalamus includes subthalamic nucleus which is part of the indirect pathway The thalamus is a midlin structure both halves on either side of the midline Within the brain are stndfluidfilled structures called ventricles The 1 and 2 ventricles are called lateral ventricles They are located on both hemispheres are closely aligned with the corpus callosum and have a Cshape anterior and posterior parts are visible in a transverse section These two lateral ventricles flow rdinto the 3 ventricle in the diencephalon which divides both halves of the thalamus The left and right parts of the thalamus are joined by the interthalamic adhesion It allows communication between both halves The thalamus overlaps with the lentiform The hypothalamus is below the thalamus and is connected to the pituitary The fornix is white matter located superior to thalamus that connects the hypothalamus with part of the temporal lobe The thpineal gland is located at the posterior end of the thalamus In a sagittal view the 4 ventricle is located between the cerebellum and the brain stem Cerebral spinal fluid flows in here The thalamus is a relay station All ascending fibres from subcortical regions including the basal ganglia and retina must synapse in a thalamic nucleus before reaching the cortex all information going to the cortex must synapse in the thalamus Descending information from the cortex doesnt synapse or relay in the thalamus It goes down through the internal capsule lateral to the thalamus The thalamus is comprised of multiple divisions or nuclei There are three different categories of thalamic nuclei Modality specific to primary cortical areas sensory and motor Association anterior LD LP MD and pulvinar These are going to regions of the cortex that are involved in more complicated things Nonspecific reticular to thalamic for arousal and intralaminar group to all areas for cortical arousal The in
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