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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesNov 811 The peripheral nervous system is divided into the sensory afferent division and the motor efferent division The motor division can be divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions The sensory division can be divided into the somatic sensory and visceral sensory which can then both be divided into general and special senses The special visceral senses are taste and smell Chemical senses Chemoreceptors respond to chemical substances food chemicals dissolved in saliva or airborne chemicals that dissolve in fluids on the nasal membranes Smell olfaction detects gases and aerosols The olfactory epithelium goes to the forebrain structures through cranial nerve I Taste gustation detects liquids The taste buds go to the brain stem via cranial nerves VII IX X The brain stem goes to the thalamus then to the cortex There is functional convergence between the forebrain structures and the cortex When a person is sick there is inflammation of the olfactory epithelium which causes a decrease in taste because of the functional convergence Papillae The taste receptors occur in taste buds in the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx Most taste buds occur in papillae which are projections of the tongue mucosa Taste buds occur within the epithelium that covers the papillae Fungiform papillae covers surface of tongueTaste buds here are present mostly at the apex of the tongue as well as at the sides Innervated by CNVII Horseshoe shaped Filiform papillae down middle of tongueIncreases keratinization and is the most numerous There are no taste buds and it has a mechanical role Pointy shape Foliate papillae edge of tonguePosterior part of the roof of the mouth on lateral margins Innervated by CNVII anterior papillae and CNIX posterior papillae Swirl shaped Circumvallate papillaeIn front of the sulcus terminalis of the tongue Associated with ducts of Von Ebners glands Innervated by CNIX Is the largest The vallate papillae are arranged in an
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