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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesNov 1711 Skeletal muscles consist of fascicles which are bundles of nerve or muscle fibres bound together by connective tissue In different muscles the fascicles are aligned in different patterns Circular muscles surround external body openings which they close by contracting ex orbicularis oris In convergent the origin of the muscle is broad and the fascicles converge toward the tendon of insertion creating triangle shape ex pectoralis major In parallel the fascicles run parallel to the muscle Parallel muscles can be fusiform tapered ends ex biceps brachii or straplike ex sternocleidomastoid In pennate pattern the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a tendon that runs the whole length of the muscle Can be multipennate looks like lots of feathers with their quills inserting into one tendon ex deltoid bipennate fascicles insert into the tendon from both sides ex rectus femoris or unipennate fascicles insert into only one side of the tendon ex flexor pollicis longus Muscle attachments Originimmovable static part of movement Insertionpart that moves Tendonattach muscles to bones Prime mover agonistmajor action Antagonistmuscle which opposes action Synergistmuscle that assists action A muscle that crosses on the anterior side of a joint produces flexion and one that crosses on the posterior side produces extension A muscle that crosses on the lateral side of a joint produces abduction and one that crosses on the posterior side produces adduction Muscles of facial expression Scalpfrontalis occipitalis occipitofrontalis or epicranius Face eyeorbicularis occuli palpebralblink orbitalwink corrugator supercilii Face mouthorbicularis oris zygomaticus risorius depressor anguli oris levator labi superioris depressor labi inferioris buccinators Neckplatysma These muscles insert on the skin not on the bones All of these muscles are innervated
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