Anatomy Notes

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Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Professor
Peter Merrifield
Semester
Fall

Description
Anatomy NotesNov 2211 The vertebral column consists of 26 distinct bones7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 1 sacral 1 coccyx Functions of vertebral columnsupport of body axis protects spinal cord attachment of ribs and muscles The vertebrae get larger from the cervical to lumbar region Ligaments attach bones to bones and ligaments in the spine hold vertebrae in register in relation to discs The anterior longitudinal ligament runs along the length of the vertebrae it is wide it attaches to bony vertebrae and intervertebral discs and it prevents over extension The posterior longitudinal ligament runs the length of it it is narrow and cordlike it attaches to intervertebral discs and it prevents over flexion The ligamentum flavum connects the lamina of adjacent vertebrae Interspinous ligament is located between spinous processes Intervertebral discs act as shock absorbers and they are composed of an inner sphere the nucleus pulposus soft inner core and an outer core the annulus fibrosus tough outer covering The discs are thicket in the lumbar and cervical regions Herniated disc is pressure on a spinal nerve cause by leakage of nucleus pulposus due to the annulus fibrosus tearing and opening up happens posterolaterally toward spinal nerves exiting from spinal cord Normal and abnormal curvatures of the vertebral column Cervical and lumbar are concave out Thoracic and sacral are convex in Scoliosis is exaggerated lateral curve thoracolumbar Kyphosis is exaggerated thoracic curvature hunchback and lordosis is exaggerated lumbar curvature temporary during pregnancy At birth the spine is not curve At 6 months crawling cervical curvature develops At 12 months walking lumbar curvature develops The adult has normal curvatures Structure of a typical thoracic vertebra A vertebra consists of a body anteriorly and a vertebral arch posteriorly In the middle is the vertebral foramen circular which contains the spinal cord The vertebral arch is formed from two pedicles and two laminae which are bony structures The spinous process projects posteriorly and infe
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