Anatomy Notes

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Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesApr 512 The deep perineum like in males consists of the levator ani and coccygeus muscles which make up the pelvic diaphragm The region inferior to the pelvic diaphragm is the perineum The intermediate perineum consists of the external urethral sphincter and the deep transverse perineal muscle This muscle is sometimes cut to increase the space of the birth canal The intermediate perineum also contains some structures There are crus which meet at the midline to form the glans clitoris There are two bulbs on either side of the vagina and urethral opening Then there are two greater vestibular glands located posterior to the bulbs and they secrete fluid In males the bulb is formed by corpora spongiosum and it then forms the glans of the penis but in females the crus form the glans The superficial perineum consists of muscles that cover these structures There is the external anal sphincter and the superficial transverse perineal muscle The ischiocavernosus muscle covers the crus and it pumps blood into clitoris so it becomes erect The bulbospongiosus muscle covers the bulbs and lies deep to the labia In males this muscle plays a role in ejaculation In females this muscle becomes enlarged and keeps the opening to the vagina tight Vagina It is a tubular and contractile fibromuscular organ The cervix of the uterus enters the vagina at a 90 angle This forms a deep recess or fornix The uterus intrudes into the anterior wall of the vagina and then it flops over on the bladder The vaginal orifice is the vaginas external opening The wall of the vagina has three layersan outer adventitia a middle muscularis and an inner mucosa with transverse rugae The mucosa consists of a lamina propia which contains elastic fibres that help the vagina return to its original shape after expanding The vagina functions as an excretory duct for the passage of menses it receives the penis and ejaculate sperm it is the birth canal and it communicates superiorly with the cervix The base of the bladder and urethra are located anterior to it The anal canal rectum
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