Anatomy Notes

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Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesMar 812 The digestive system can be divided into the alimentary canal and the accessory digestive organs The alimentary canal is the muscular digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus and it consists of the mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine and anus The accessory digestive organs consist of the teeth tongue gallbladder salivary glands liver and pancreas Structures associated with the oral cavity The mouth or oral cavity is a mucosalined cavity The mouth is divided into the vestibule region in front of teeth and the oral cavity proper region of mouth that lies internal to the teeth The hard palate and soft palate form the roof of the mouth The uvula is attached to the soft palate and it rises during swallowing to close off the nasopharynx Laterally the soft palate is anchored to the tongue by the palatoglossal arches and to the wall of the oropharynx by the palatopharyngeal arches These two arches form the boundaries of the fauces which is the arched area of the oropharynx that contains the palatine tonsils They mark the end of the oral cavity and the beginning of the pharynx The tonsils are concentrations of lymphoid tissue which form a tonsilar ring around the openings to the oral and nasal cavities to protect against infection The lingual tonsil is located at the base of the posterior 13 of the tongue The palatine tonsils are located between the palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches and are the largest group of tonsils They are removed in a tonsillectomy The pharyngeal tonsils are located in the pharyngeal roof and are also called the adenoids The tubal tonsils surround the openings to the auditory pharyngotympanic tubes and prevent the spread of infection from the pharynx to the auditory tubes The walls of the oral cavity contain an internal mucosa made of epithelium and lamina propia a submucosa and an external layer of muscle or bone The labial frenulum is a median fold that connects the internal part of each lip to the gum The lingual frenulum secures the tongue to the fl
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