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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesMar 2012 Functions of the urinary system It filters bloodfilters 200 L of fluidday and excretes 14 Lday It eliminates wastenitrogenous compounds It excretes excess ions to maintain waterelectrolyte balance It produces transports and stores urine Micturition is the process of peeing It also regulates blood pressure The urinary system is comprised of two kidneys two ureters a urinary bladder and a urethra The kidneys lie retroperitoneal behind the parietal peritoneum Infections of the female urinary bladder are common because the urethra is short and infection doesnt have far to travel Kidneys The kidneys are located in the posterior peritoneal wall and are retroperitoneal structures are not located within the peritoneal cavity They extend from T12L3 The right kidney is located slightly inferior to the left kidney because the liver pushes it down a bit The medial margin of the kidney contains a hilum which is where the renal veins and arteries the lymphatics and the ureters enter and exit the kidney The ureters are located most posterior The kidneys process 2025 of cardiac output The kidneys contain different surfaces margins and poles There are anterior and posterior surfaces There are lateral and medial margins There are superior and inferior poles The superior pole of each kidney is associated with the adrenal gland The superior poles are protected by the rib cage but the inferior poles are not protected by anything The right kidney is lower than the left and is related to the liver duodenum and ascending colon The left kidney is related to the stomach spleen pancreas jejunum and descending colon Relationship of kidneys with other abdominal organs The adrenal glands are in direct contact with the kidneys and are retroperitoneal The colon duodenum and pancreas are also in direct contact with the kidneys are retroperitoneal The liver stomach spleen and jejunum are not in direct contact with the kidneys because the peritoneal membrane separates th
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