Anatomy Notes

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Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesMar 2212 The ureters are muscular tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder They stretch when they become filled and this creates a peristalsislike movement that moves the urine down They begin at the level of L2 which is where the hilum is as a continuation of the renal pelvis They are 2530 cm in length They descend retroperitoneal are not located in the peritoneal cavity They enter the pelvis at the bifurcation of the common iliac artery and then enter the posterior bladder wall The walls of the ureters have three layersa mucosa a muscularis and an adventitia There are three locations at risk for kidney stonesthe renal pelvisproximal ureter the pelvic brimcommon iliac and the wall of the bladder Urinary bladder The bladder is a pyramid shaped muscular sac with a base apex and body It lies inferior to the peritoneal cavity and posterior to the pubic symphysis A full bladder expands superiorly into the abdominal cavity but an empty bladder lies entirely within the pelvis The body of the bladder has a superior posterior and two inferiolateral surfaces The posterior surface is its base and its apex points anteriorly The two inferiolateral surfaces of the body converge inferiorly to form a neck at the inferior angle through which the urethra drains The posteriorlateral angles receive the ureters Ureters enter at the posteriorlateral angles and run obliquely through the bladder wall Its superior surface is covered by peritoneum retroperitoneal structure At the apex is the urachus which is a median umbilical ligament and it attaches to the anterior abdominal wall The base of the bladder is associated with the rectum in males and the vagina in females In males the prostate gland lies inferior to the bladder where it surrounds the urethra The interior of the bladder contains convoluted folds of mucosal lining rugae except for a smooth triangular region called the trigone The angles of the trigone contain the openings for the two ureters and the urethra internal u
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