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Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesFeb 212 What is a joint A joint is the point at which two bones articulate with each other Joints vary greatly in structure and function The degree of movement at a joint is determined by the structure of the joint Arthro means joint Classification of joints 1 Fibrousimmoveable synarthroses connected by fibrous tissue examples are sutures tibiofibular joint and socket of tooth 2 Cartilaginousslightly moveable amphiarthroses hyaline cartilage ex epiphyseal growth plate fibrocartilage ex pubic symphysis intervertebral discs 3 Synovialhighest degree of mobility diarthroses mainly found in appendicular skeleton 1 Fibrous jointsimmoveable In fibrous joints the bones are connected by fibrous tissue called connective tissue No joint cavity is present The types of fibrous joints are sutures syndesmoses and gomphoses Sutures are only found in the skull During development bones are separated by short collagen fibres With age the fibrous tissue ossifies and the skull bones become fused together Hydrocephalus occurs when there is a blockage in the ventricular drainage system of the brain leading to excessive buildup of cerebrospinal fluid This happens because the skull sutures have not yet maturedThe distal tibiofibular joint is an example of a syndesmosis and there is no movement at this joint because the fibres are short The fibres in the interosseous membrane between the radius and ulna are long allowing for a lot of movement The bones are connected by a ligament A gomphosis is an articulation of a tooth with its socket The connecting ligament between the tooth and socket is the periodontal ligament 2 Cartilaginous jointsslightly moveable The articulating bones are connected by cartilage No joint cavity is present The two types of cartilaginous joints are synchondroses and symphyses In synchondroses the bones are connected by
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