Anatomy Notes

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Western University
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Anatomy and Cell Biology 3319
Peter Merrifield

Anatomy NotesJan 2412 Osteology of the lower limb pelvic girdle femur tibia fibula bones of foot The segments of the lower limb are the thigh leg and foot Flexion of the hiplift up thigh Extension of the hipmove leg back Flexion of the leg kneebend leg back at knee bring foot towards back Extension of the leg kneeextend leg at knee There can also be lateral and medial rotation of the hip Dorsiflexionmove foot up heel on ground Plantar flexionmove foot down toes on ground Inversionfoot in lateral side of foot touching the ground Eversionfoot out medial side of foot touching the ground The pelvic girdle is similar to the pectoral girdle but it is a true girdle The pelvic girdle consists of the paired hip bones A hip bone is also called an os coxae Each hip bone meets with the other anteriorly and with sacrum posteriorly The hip bone is formed from the fusion of three bonesilium ischium and pubis The junction of these three bones forms the acetabulum which articulates with the ballshaped head of the femur at the hip joint Ilium The ilium consists of an inferior body and a superior ala The iliac crest is the thickened superior part of the ala The iliac crest ends anteriorly in the ASIS and posteriorly in the PSIS Inferior to these are the AIIS and PIIS Inferior to the PIIS is the greater sciatic notch through which the sciatic nerve passes The posterolateral surface of the ilium gluteal surface contains three ridgesthe posterior anterior and inferior gluteal lines which are attachment sites for the gluteal muscles The internal surface is called the iliac fossa bowllike and posterior to it is the auricular surface which articulates with the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint Anterior and inferior to the auricular surface is the arcuate line which defines the superior boundary of the true pelvis Ischium The ischium consists of a thick body and a thin ramus The ramus joins the pubis anteriorly The ischial spine lies posterior to the acetabulum and is an attachment point for the sacrospinous ligament Inferior to it is the lesser sciatic notch through which pass the nerves and vessels that serve the perineum The inferior surface of the body is the ischial tuberosity which is the attachment point for the hamstring muscles The sacrotuberous ligament runs from the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity and helps hold the pelvis together Pubis The pubis forms the anterior region of the hip bone It has superior and inferior rami that extend from the body The anterior part of the body forms the pubic crest and lateral to the pubic crest is the pubic tubercle which is an attachment point for the inguinal ligament The inferior ramus joins the ischial ramus and the superior ramus joins the bodies of the ischium and ilium The pubic symphysis is where one pubis attaches to the other pubis Inferior to this is the pubic arch The obturator foramen is located between the pubis and ischium and the obturator nerve passes through here The pelvic inlet big hole true pelvis is a passage for veins and it is also the birth canal Comparing the male and female pelvis Female pelvisTilts forward adapted for childbearing True pelvis defines the birth canal Bones lighter and less dense Smaller acetabula Pubic angle more rounded 8090 degrees Male pelvisLess forward tilt better to support the heavier male build Cavity of true pelvis is deep and narrow Larger acetabula Pubic angle is more acute 5060 degreesTrue versus false pelvis The false pelvis includes the area above the pelvic brim including the ilium and associated alae and contains abdominal organs The true pelvis is the area located beneath the pelvic brim and it forms a deep bowl which contains the pelvic organs Femur It is the only bone of the thigh It is similar to the humerus and is the largest longest and strongest bone in the body The head of the femur has a small central pit called the fovea capitis The ligament of the head of the femur runs from this pit to the acetabulum of the hip bone Below the head is the neck which angles laterally to join the shaftbody The neck is the weakest part of the
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