Paradigm: a conceptual framework how theories are developed. Antiquity of earth earth was not thought to be very old. Great chain of being hierarchy of species (some low, some higher, noble and. Fixity of species species did not change into anything else close to heaven) James ussher famous for attempting to calculate the age of the earth by going through the old testament and looking at sons and going back through generations (eg. roughly 25 years per generation and going back) One creation event when all plants and animals were created by god have not. Thoughts: where have we been, where are we going, where are we now. Colonial expansions seeing new people, animals, plants, environmental contexts. Note: not just western societies that thought of these ideas other people that discovered natural selection (before darwin) but it is about development in. Developed hierarchical order: every species has a place.