Can make predictions eg: predict where bison kill sites might be found. How sites found: hard to miss eg: pyramids, parthenon, ancient cities. Exceptions rather than rule (biased pov: accident, by looking = site/archaeological survey. Can do on ground or using remote sensing (eg: aerial/satellite photographs) Excavation mostly but not always necessary to dig. Eg: collect and map artifacts on surface of ploughed fields. Would include things like bones of animals, seeds and plants found in site brought in or modified by people ( ecofacts ) Organics don"t preserve for long periods under normal conditions. Organics preserve longer under very wet or dry conditions. Eg: bog people of europe; dry caves with sandals/baskets southwest usa; natural mummies in peru, etc: features. Evidence of past human activity at site which cannot be easily remove. Usually destroyed when excavated must keep careful records: context. Location and association of artifacts and features in site. Most important of all things found in sites.