Sahul: papua new guinea and australia were 1 land mass due to lowered ocean levels. Had to have some form of watercraft by this time crossing 30-35km stretches. By 25,000 crossing 100km stretches and out of site of land. Aboriginal peoples came from east asia: genetic and skeletal evidence. Three-rooted lower 1st molar, strong incisor shoveling, etc. But earliest well-documented sites 14-15,000 years old or end of last ice age. During last glacial (americas = wisconsin) two major ice-sheets a. i. Best known of early peoples clovis found in western north america (12-13,000 years ago) Most distinctive artifact stone point with grooved or fluted base. Seems not far removed from old world: very upper paleolithic-like but called clovis. Eg: 1) tool kit includes blades, burins, eyed needles, bone/ivory points, etc. like upper. 2) skilled hunters of big game, especially mammoth. 3) similar belief systems = use of red ochre.