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Lecture 5

Anthropology 1027A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Affix, Word Formation, Morpheme


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTH 1027A/B
Professor
Tania Granadillo
Lecture
5

Page:
of 3
Anthropology 1027A/B Tuesday, October 11th, 2016
Lecture 5: Morphology
Morphology
Tuesday, October 11th, 2016
Definitions
Word: Smallest free form in language which holds meaning
Lexicon: Mental dictionary
Morphology: Component if grammer dealing with words and word formation
Morpheme: Smallest unit of language having meaning
or function
Lexical Categories: Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, determiner, conjunction
Words and Morphemes
Simple vs. complex words
One or more morphemes
Ex. <fly> is a simple word
Ex. <desks> is a complex word (desk | s)
Ex. <untie> is a complex word (un | tie)
Ex. <delight> is a simple word
Free and Bound Morphemes:
Free Morphemes:
Can occur as independent words
Ex. house, play, happy
Ex. tree, desk, like, tie, just, delight
Bound Morphemes:
Cannot occur as independent words and must be attached (i.. bound) to a stem
Ex. hous
es
, play
ed
,
un
happy
Ex. desk
s
,
dis
like,
un
tie, just
ly
Allomorphs
Variants of morphemes
May be phonologically and/or morphologically determined
Ex. English past tense ([-t], [-d], irregulars)
Talked
Watched
Played
Weighed
Was, Were
Came
If the last sound is voiceless, the ed
is pronounced t
(talked, watched)
If the last sound is voiced, the ed
is pronounced d
(played, weighed)
Analyzing Word Structure
Identify morphemes:
Roots
Affixes: Things that can be added on (ex. black + en = blacken)
Base
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Anthropology 1027A/B Tuesday, October 11th, 2016
Lecture 5: Morphology
Types of Affixes:
Prefix: before the root
Im.possible
Un.important
Re.activate
Suffix: after the root
Fox.es
Dog.s
Black.en.ed
Infix: separates the root
Tagalog bili: b.in.ili, basa, b.in.asa, sulat s.in.ulat
English fan.fucking.tastic, abso.fucking.lutely
Word Formation Process
Affixation
Derivations and inflections
Both involve affixation
Derivation
Changes the meaning or the category
Not productive; more restricted application
Inflection
Does not change the category or meaning
Generally applicable
Add derivational affixes before inflectional affixes
Other inflectional processes:
Internal change
Sing/sang, drive/drove
Suppletion
Am, is, are
Reduplication, total or partial copy
Tagalog: Partial for tense: Takbo ‘run’ and tatakbo ‘will run’
Tagalog: Partial for tense: Lakad ‘walk’ and lalakad ‘will walk’
Tagalog: Partial for tense: Pili ‘choose’ and pipili ‘will choose’
Turkish: Total for intensity: Iyi ‘well’ and iyi iyi ‘very well’
Indonesian: Total for plural: Orang ‘man’ and orang orang ‘men’
English: Total for reality: Car ‘car’ and car car ‘a real
car’
English: Total for intensity: Like ‘platonic feelings and like like ‘romantic feelings’
The English examples are recent and therefore generational
Representing Morphological Structure
Tree structures show:
Lexical category
What is root
What are bases
Order of affixes
How the affixes affect category
Note that affixes only attach to certain lexical categories
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Anthropology 1027A/B Tuesday, October 11th, 2016
Lecture 5: Morphology
Word Structure
Conversion: changes the lexical category or meaning of an existing word without changing the word form
Ex. horse (N) > horse (V) + ed (past) > horsed
Ex. text (N) > text (V) + ing (progressive) > texting
Ex. repeat (V) + ed (past) > repeated (V) ? repeated (ADJ) + ly (ADV) > repeatedly
Clipping: a process that shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables
Professor > prof
Advertisement > ad
Blending: the creation of new words by combining non-morphemic parts of existing words
Breakfast + lunch = brunch
Backformation: creates new words by removing a real (or supposed) affix from another word
Computer > compute
Editor > edit
Administration > administrate
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com